Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
J R Soc Med. 1984 July; 77(7): 542–549.
PMCID: PMC1439936

Exogenous hormones in the aetiology of cancer in women.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adam SA, Sheaves JK, Wright NH, Mosser G, Harris RW, Vessey MP. A case-control study of the possible association between oral contraceptives and malignant melanoma. Br J Cancer. 1981 Jul;44(1):45–50. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bain C, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE, Rosner B, Willett W, Belanger C. Oral contraceptive use and malignant melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1982 Apr;68(4):537–539. [PubMed]
  • Beral V, Colwell L. Randomised trial of high doses of stilboestrol and ethisterone in pregnancy: long-term follow-up of mothers. Br Med J. 1980 Oct 25;281(6248):1098–1101. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beral V, Ramcharan S, Faris R. Malignant melanoma and oral contraceptive use among women in California. Br J Cancer. 1977 Dec;36(6):804–809. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boyce JG, Lu T, Nelson JH, Jr, Fruchter RG. Oral contraceptives and cervical carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 Aug 1;128(7):761–766. [PubMed]
  • Brackbill Y, Berendes HW. Dangers of diethylstilboestrol: Review of a 1953 paper. Lancet. 1978 Sep 2;2(8088):520–520. [PubMed]
  • Brian DD, Tilley BC, Labarthe DR, O'Fallon WM, Noller KL, Kurland LT. Breast cancer in DES-exposed mothers: absence of association. Mayo Clin Proc. 1980 Feb;55(2):89–93. [PubMed]
  • Brinton LA, Hoover RN, Szklo M, Fraumeni JF., Jr Menopausal estrogen use and risk of breast cancer. Cancer. 1981 May 15;47(10):2517–2522. [PubMed]
  • Casagrande JT, Louie EW, Pike MC, Roy S, Ross RK, Henderson BE. "Incessant ovulation" and ovarian cancer. Lancet. 1979 Jul 28;2(8135):170–173. [PubMed]
  • Cramer DW, Hutchison GB, Welch WR, Scully RE, Knapp RC. Factors affecting the association of oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med. 1982 Oct 21;307(17):1047–1051. [PubMed]
  • Davis JA, Wadehra V, McIntosh AS, Monaghan JM. A case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1981 Mar;88(3):322–326. [PubMed]
  • DIECKMANN WJ, DAVIS ME, RYNKIEWICZ LM, POTTINGER RE. Does the administration of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy have therapeutic value? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1953 Nov;66(5):1062–1081. [PubMed]
  • Edmondson HA, Henderson B, Benton B. Liver-cell adenomas associated with use of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1976 Feb 26;294(9):470–472. [PubMed]
  • Franceschi S, La Vecchia C, Helmrich SP, Mangioni C, Tognoni G. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Italy. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 May;115(5):714–719. [PubMed]
  • Gambrell RD, Jr, Maier RC, Sanders BI. Decreased incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal estrogen-progestogen users. Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Oct;62(4):435–443. [PubMed]
  • Gambrell RD, Jr, Massey FM, Castaneda TA, Ugenas AJ, Ricci CA. Reduced incidence of endometrial cancer among postmenopausal women treated with progestogens. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1979 Sep;27(9):389–394. [PubMed]
  • Harris RW, Brinton LA, Cowdell RH, Skegg DC, Smith PG, Vessey MP, Doll R. Characteristics of women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri. Br J Cancer. 1980 Sep;42(3):359–369. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Henderson BE, Casagrande JT, Pike MC, Mack T, Rosario I, Duke A. The epidemiology of endometrial cancer in young women. Br J Cancer. 1983 Jun;47(6):749–756. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Henderson BE, Preston-Martin S, Edmondson HA, Peters RL, Pike MC. Hepatocellular carcinoma and oral contraceptives. Br J Cancer. 1983 Sep;48(3):437–440. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Henderson BE, Ross RK, Pike MC, Casagrande JT. Endogenous hormones as a major factor in human cancer. Cancer Res. 1982 Aug;42(8):3232–3239. [PubMed]
  • Hildreth NG, Kelsey JL, LiVolsi VA, Fischer DB, Holford TR, Mostow ED, Schwartz PE, White C. An epidemiologic study of epithelial carcinoma of the ovary. Am J Epidemiol. 1981 Sep;114(3):398–405. [PubMed]
  • Holly EA, Weiss NS, Liff JM. Cutaneous melanoma in relation to exogenous hormones and reproductive factors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1983 May;70(5):827–831. [PubMed]
  • Hoover R, Glass A, Finkle WD, Azevedo D, Milne K. Conjugated estrogens and breast cancer risk in women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981 Oct;67(4):815–820. [PubMed]
  • Hoover R, Gray LA, Sr, Cole P, MacMahon B. Menopausal estrogens and breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1976 Aug 19;295(8):401–405. [PubMed]
  • Hulka BS, Chambless LE, Deubner DC, Wilkinson WE. Breast cancer and estrogen replacement therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Jul 15;143(6):638–644. [PubMed]
  • Hulka BS, Chambless LE, Kaufman DG, Fowler WC, Jr, Greenberg BG. Protection against endometrial carcinoma by combination-product oral contraceptives. JAMA. 1982 Jan 22;247(4):475–477. [PubMed]
  • Jick H, Walker AM, Watkins RN, D'Ewart DC, Hunter JR, Danford A, Madsen S, Dinan BJ, Rothman KJ. Replacement estrogens and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1980 Nov;112(5):586–594. [PubMed]
  • Kalache A, McPherson K, Barltrop K, Vessey MP. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. Br J Hosp Med. 1983 Oct;30(4):278–283. [PubMed]
  • Kaufman DW, Shapiro S, Slone D, Rosenberg L, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Knapp RC, Leavitt T, Jr, Watring WG, Rosenshein NB, et al. Decreased risk of endometrial cancer among oral-contraceptive users. N Engl J Med. 1980 Oct 30;303(18):1045–1047. [PubMed]
  • Kelsey JL, Fischer DB, Holford TR, LiVoisi VA, Mostow ED, Goldenberg IS, White C. Exogenous estrogens and other factors in the epidemiology of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981 Aug;67(2):327–333. [PubMed]
  • Kelsey JL, LiVolsi VA, Holford TR, Fischer DB, Mostow ED, Schwartz PE, O'Connor T, White C. A case-control study of cancer of the endometrium. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 Aug;116(2):333–342. [PubMed]
  • Kinlen LJ, Badaracco MA, Moffett J, Vessey MP. A survey of the use of oestrogens during pregnancy in the United Kingdom and of the genito-urinary cancer mortality and incidence rates in young people in England and Wales. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1974 Nov;81(11):849–855. [PubMed]
  • La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Gallus G, Decarli A, Colombo E, Mangioni C, Tognoni G. Oestrogens and obesity as risk factors for endometrial cancer in Italy. Int J Epidemiol. 1982 Jun;11(2):120–126. [PubMed]
  • McPherson K, Neil A, Vessey MP, Doll R. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer. Lancet. 1983 Dec 17;2(8364):1414–1415. [PubMed]
  • Monaghan JM, Sirisena LA. Stilboestrol and vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma syndrome. Br Med J. 1978 Jun 17;1(6127):1588–1590. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Newhouse ML, Pearson RM, Fullerton JM, Boesen EA, Shannon HS. A case control study of carcinoma of the ovary. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1977 Sep;31(3):148–153. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noller KL, Townsend DE, Kaufman RH, Barnes AB, Robboy SJ, Fish CR, Jefferies JA, Bergstralh EJ, O'Brien PC, McGorray SP, et al. Maturation of vaginal and cervical epithelium in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DESAD Project). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Jun 1;146(3):279–285. [PubMed]
  • Peritz E, Ramcharan S, Frank J, Brown WL, Huang S, Ray R. The incidence of cervical cancer and duration of oral contraceptive use. Am J Epidemiol. 1977 Dec;106(6):462–469. [PubMed]
  • Pike MC, Henderson BE, Casagrande JT, Rosario I, Gray GE. Oral contraceptive use and early abortion as risk factors for breast cancer in young women. Br J Cancer. 1981 Jan;43(1):72–76. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pike MC, Henderson BE, Krailo MD, Duke A, Roy S. Breast cancer in young women and use of oral contraceptives: possible modifying effect of formulation and age at use. Lancet. 1983 Oct 22;2(8356):926–930. [PubMed]
  • Rooks JB, Ory HW, Ishak KG, Strauss LT, Greenspan JR, Hill AP, Tyler CW., Jr Epidemiology of hepatocellular adenoma. The role of oral contraceptive use. JAMA. 1979 Aug 17;242(7):644–648. [PubMed]
  • Rosenberg L, Shapiro S, Slone D, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD, Rosenshein NB, Schottenfeld D, Engle RL., Jr Epithelial ovarian cancer and combination oral contraceptives. JAMA. 1982 Jun 18;247(23):3210–3212. [PubMed]
  • Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Gerkins VR, Mack TM, Pfeffer R, Arthur M, Henderson BE. A case-control study of menopausal estrogen therapy and breast cancer. JAMA. 1980 Apr 25;243(16):1635–1639. [PubMed]
  • Sherman B, Wallace R, Bean J. Estrogen use and breast cancer. Interaction with body mass. Cancer. 1983 Apr 15;51(8):1527–1531. [PubMed]
  • Shy KK, McTiernan AM, Daling JR, Weiss NS. Oral contraceptive use and the occurrence of pituitary prolactinoma. JAMA. 1983 Apr 22;249(16):2204–2207. [PubMed]
  • Stern E, Forsythe AB, Youkeles L, Coffelt CF. Steroid contraceptive use and cervical dysplasia: increased risk of progression. Science. 1977 Jun 24;196(4297):1460–1462. [PubMed]
  • Swan SH, Brown WL. Oral contraceptive use, sexual activity, and cervical carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Jan;139(1):52–57. [PubMed]
  • Swan SH, Petitti DB. A review of problems of bias and confounding in epidemiologic studies of cervical neoplasia and oral contraceptive use. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 Jan;115(1):10–18. [PubMed]
  • Swyer GI. Determination of progestational potency: a review. J R Soc Med. 1984 May;77(5):406–409. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thomas DB. Relationship of oral contraceptives to cervical carcinogenesis. Obstet Gynecol. 1972 Oct;40(4):508–518. [PubMed]
  • Thomas DB. Non-contraceptive exogenous estrogens and risk of breast cancer: a review. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1982;2(3):203–211. [PubMed]
  • Thomas DB, Persing JP, Hutchinson WB. Exogenous estrogens and other risk factors for breast cancer in women with benign breast diseases. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1982 Nov;69(5):1017–1025. [PubMed]
  • Vessey MP, Fairweather DV, Norman-Smith B, Buckley J. A randomized double-blind controlled trial of the value of stilboestrol therapy in pregnancy: long-term follow-up of mothers and their offspring. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1983 Nov;90(11):1007–1017. [PubMed]
  • Vessey MP, Lawless M, McPherson K, Yeates D. Neoplasia of the cervix uteri and contraception: a possible adverse effect of the pill. Lancet. 1983 Oct 22;2(8356):930–934. [PubMed]
  • Vessey MP, Lawless M, McPherson K, Yeates D. Oral contraceptives and cervical cancer. Lancet. 1983 Dec 10;2(8363):1358–1359. [PubMed]
  • Vessey MP, McPherson K, Yeates D, Doll R. Oral contraceptive use and abortion before first term pregnancy in relation to breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 1982 Mar;45(3):327–331. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weiss NS, Lyon JL, Liff JM, Vollmer WM, Daling JR. Incidence of ovarian cancer in relation to the use of oral contraceptives. Int J Cancer. 1981 Dec;28(6):669–671. [PubMed]
  • Weiss NS, Sayvetz TA. Incidence of endometrial cancer in relation to the use of oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med. 1980 Mar 6;302(10):551–554. [PubMed]
  • Willett WC, Bain C, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Speizer FE. Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer. 1981 Oct 1;48(7):1684–1687. [PubMed]
  • Worth AJ, Boyes DA. A case control study into the possible effects of birth control pills on pre-clinical carcinoma of the cervix. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1972 Aug;79(8):673–679. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press