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J R Soc Med. 1984 June; 77(6): 483–487.
PMCID: PMC1439819

Controlled study of self-exposure treatment for phobics: preliminary communication.


Patients with phobic disorder (mainly agoraphobics ) of minimum one year duration were treated by self-administered exposure in vivo treatment. Seventy-one patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (A) book-instructed, (B) computer-instructed, or (C) therapist-instructed. All three groups improved significantly to a similar extent on various phobic measures at the end of the treatment and maintained their treatment gains at 6-month follow up. Mean clinicians' time spent with each patient was 40 minutes, 4.2 hours and 3.2 hours in group A, B and C respectively. Similar small numbers of patients defaulted from each group.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Carr AC, Ghosh A. Response of phobic patients to direct computer assessment. Br J Psychiatry. 1983 Jan;142:60–65. [PubMed]
  • Carr AC, Ghosh A. Accuracy of behavioural assessment by computer. Br J Psychiatry. 1983 Jan;142:66–70. [PubMed]
  • The effects of self-exposure instructions on agoraphobic outpatients. Behav Res Ther. 1979;17(1):83–85. [PubMed]
  • Marks IM, Mathews AM. Brief standard self-rating for phobic patients. Behav Res Ther. 1979;17(3):263–267. [PubMed]
  • Marks I. Are there anticompulsive or antiphobic drugs? Review of the evidence. Br J Psychiatry. 1983 Oct;143:338–347. [PubMed]

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