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A technique is described for treating the urethral syndrome in ambulant women by cryosurgery under local anaesthesia using a specially devised guard or applicator. This follows a trial study (Parkes & Boreham 1980) in which a modified guard was used. Experience with over 350 cases and detailed follow up of 111 of them has confirmed improvement in 95% (93 of 111). No patient was made worse, only 10 required second treatments and the majority, when asked, said they thought the treatment was of value and that they would be prepared to have the same treatment again if necessary. This is a simple, safe and harmless technique for the treatment of the female urethral syndrome. It can be carried out under local anaesthesia as an outpatient or under general anaesthesia following cystoscopy. It causes few complications and relieves the symptoms in the majority of such patients.