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Amongst 30 patients who had undergone untwisting and fixation for unilateral torsion of the testis, seminal analyses were normal in 15, equivocal in 3 and pathological in 12; and of 46 men with cryptorchidism who had had unilateral orchidopexy, seminal analyses were normal in 13, equivocal in 23 and pathological in 10. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels were found to be elevated in those with equivocal and pathological seminal analyses in both groups. Assessment of testicular function before orchidectomy in 36 patients with seminomas and non-seminomatous testicular tumours revealed only one (with a HCG-negative seminoma) with a normal seminal analysis. Men with HCG-positive testicular tumours were found to have decreased follicle-stimulating hormone levels and elevated 17-beta-oestradiol and prolactin levels.