Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
J R Soc Med. 1981 June; 74(6): 448–450.
PMCID: PMC1438762

Endogenous opioids and pain: a review.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (488K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adams JE. Naloxone reversal of analgesia produced by brain stimulation in the human. Pain. 1976 Jun;2(2):161–166. [PubMed]
  • Akil H, Mayer DJ, Liebeskind JC. Antagonism of stimulation-produced analgesia by naloxone, a narcotic antagonist. Science. 1976 Mar 5;191(4230):961–962. [PubMed]
  • Amir S, Amit Z. Endogenous opioid ligands may mediate stress-induced changes in the affective properties of pain related behavior in rats. Life Sci. 1978 Sep 18;23(11):1143–1151. [PubMed]
  • Basbaum AI, Clanton CH, Fields HL. Opiate and stimulus-produced analgesia: functional anatomy of a medullospinal pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Dec;73(12):4685–4688. [PubMed]
  • Beaumont A, Hughes J. Biology of opioid peptides. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1979;19:245–267. [PubMed]
  • Belenky GL, Holaday JW. The opiate antagonist naloxone modifies the effects of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on respiration, blood pressure and heart rate. Brain Res. 1979 Nov 16;177(2):414–417. [PubMed]
  • Bell JA, Martin WR. The effect of the narcotic antagonists naloxone, naltrexone and nalorphine on spinal cord C-fiber reflexes evoked by electrical stimulation or radiant heat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1977 Mar 21;42(2):147–154. [PubMed]
  • Berkowitz BA, Finck AD, Ngai SH. Nitrous oxide analgesia: reversal by naloxone and development of tolerance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1977 Dec;203(3):539–547. [PubMed]
  • Boureau F, Willer JC, Yamaguchi Y. Abolition par la naloxone de l'effet inhibiteur d'une stimulation électrique périphérique sur la composante tardive du réflexe de clignement. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1979 Sep;47(3):322–328. [PubMed]
  • Birdsall NJ, Hulme EC. C fragment of lipotropin has a high affinity for brain opiate receptors. Nature. 1976 Apr 29;260(5554):793–795. [PubMed]
  • Chapman CR, Benedetti C. Analgesia following transcutaneous electrical stimulation and its partial reversal by a narcotic antagonist. Life Sci. 1977 Dec 1;21(11):1645–1648. [PubMed]
  • Chesher GB, Chan B. Footshock induced analgesia in mice: its reversal by naloxone and cross tolerance with morphine. Life Sci. 1977 Dec 1;21(11):1569–1574. [PubMed]
  • Crain SM, Crain B, Peterson ER, Simon EJ. Selective depression by opioid peptides of sensory-evoked dorsal-horn network responses in organized spinal cord cultures. Brain Res. 1978 Nov 17;157(1):196–201. [PubMed]
  • Dehen H, Willer JC, Prier S, Boureau F, Cambier J. Congenital insensitivity to pain and the "morphine-like" analgesic system. Pain. 1978 Dec;5(4):351–358. [PubMed]
  • Duggan AW, Hall JG, Headley PM. Suppression of transmission of nociceptive impulses by morphine: selective effects of morphine administered in the region of the substantia gelatinosa. Br J Pharmacol. 1977 Sep;61(1):65–76. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Evans LE. Use of naloxone in opiate poisoning. Br Med J. 1973 Jun 23;2(5868):717–717. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grandison L, Guidotti A. Regulation of prolactin release by endogenous opiates. Nature. 1977 Nov 24;270(5635):357–359. [PubMed]
  • Hughes J. Isolation of an endogenous compound from the brain with pharmacological properties similar to morphine. Brain Res. 1975 May 2;88(2):295–308. [PubMed]
  • Jacob JJ, Ramabadran K. Opioid antagonists, endogenous ligands and nociception. Eur J Pharmacol. 1977 Dec 15;46(4):393–394. [PubMed]
  • Kosterlitz HW, Leslie FM. Comparison of the receptor binding characteristics of opiate agonists interacting with mu- or kappa-receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1978 Dec;64(4):607–614. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kosterlitz HW, Lord JA, Paterson SJ, Waterfield AA. Effects of changes in the structure of enkephalins and of narcotic analgesic drugs on their interactions with mu- and delta-receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1980 Feb;68(2):333–342. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lyell A, Bain WH, Thomson RM. Repeated failure of nickel-containing prosthetic heart valves in a patient allergic to nickel. Lancet. 1978 Sep 23;2(8091):657–659. [PubMed]
  • Levine JD, Gordon NC, Jones RT, Fields HL. The narcotic antagonist naloxone enhances clinical pain. Nature. 1978 Apr 27;272(5656):826–827. [PubMed]
  • Lewis VA, Gebhart GF. Morphine-induced and stimulation-produced analgesias at coincident periaqueductal central gray loci: evaluation of analgesic congruence, tolerance, and cross-tolerance. Exp Neurol. 1977 Dec;57(3):934–955. [PubMed]
  • Lowney LI, Gentleman SB, Goldstein A. A pituitary endorphin with novel properties. Life Sci. 1979 Jun 18;24(25):2377–2384. [PubMed]
  • Martin WR. Opioid antagonists. Pharmacol Rev. 1967 Dec;19(4):463–521. [PubMed]
  • Mayer DJ, Price DD. Central nervous system mechanisms of analgesia. Pain. 1976 Dec;2(4):379–404. [PubMed]
  • Pert CB, Snyder SH. Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science. 1973 Mar 9;179(4077):1011–1014. [PubMed]
  • Pomeranz B, Chiu D. Naloxone blockade of acupuncture analgesia: endorphin implicated. Life Sci. 1976 Dec 1;19(11):1757–1762. [PubMed]
  • Pomeranz B, Cheng R, Law P. Acupuncture reduces electrophysiological and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli: pituitary is implicated. Exp Neurol. 1977 Jan;54(1):172–178. [PubMed]
  • Rivot JP, Chaouch A, Besson JM. The influence of naloxone on the C fiber response of dorsal horn neurons and their inhibitory control by raphe magnus stimulation. Brain Res. 1979 Nov 2;176(2):355–364. [PubMed]
  • Satoh M, Kawajiri S, Yamamoto M, Akaike A, Ukai Y, Takagi H. Effects of tyrosyl-arginine (kyotorphin), a new opioid dipeptide, on single neurons in the spinal dorsal horn of rabbits and the nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis of rats. Neurosci Lett. 1980 Mar;16(3):319–322. [PubMed]
  • Sawynok J, Pinsky C, LaBella FS. On the specificity of naloxone as an opiate antagonist. Life Sci. 1979 Nov 5;25(19):1621–1632. [PubMed]
  • Strahlendorf HK, Strahlendorf JC, Barnes CD. Endorphin-mediated inhibition of locus coeruleus neurons. Brain Res. 1980 Jun 2;191(1):284–288. [PubMed]
  • Sullivan S, Akil H, Blacker D, Barchas JD. Enkephalinase: selective inhibitors and partial characterization. Peptides. 1980 Spring;1(1):31–35. [PubMed]
  • Terenius L, Wahlström A. Endorphins and clinical pain, an overview. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1979;116:261–277. [PubMed]
  • Wall PD, Yaksh TL. Effect of Lissauer tract stimulation on activity in dorsal roots and in ventral roots. Exp Neurol. 1978 Jul;60(3):570–583. [PubMed]
  • Wüster M, Duka T, Herz A. Diazepam-induced release of opioid activity in the rat brain. Neurosci Lett. 1980 Mar;16(3):335–337. [PubMed]
  • Yanagida H, Corssen G, Ceballos R, Strong E. Alcohol-induced pituitary adenolysis: how does it control intractable cancer pain?--An experimental study using tooth pulp-evoked potentials in rhesus monkeys. Anesth Analg. 1979 Jul-Aug;58(4):279–287. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press