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The powerful peripheral vasodilator minoxidil, in a dose of 5–40 mg daily, controlled the previously refractory blood pressure in 45 out of 47 patients for periods up to fifty-seven months. The majority of the previous polypharmacy was withdrawn, leaving most of the patients taking a beta-blocking drug, minoxidil and a diuretic. Severe sodium retention leading to congestive cardiac failure necessitated the withdrawal of the drug in 3 patients. In one patient the drug was discontinued because of postural hypotension, and it was withdrawn in 2 female patients because of hirsutism. Five patients were removed from the trial as they were started on chronic maintenance haemodialysis or received a renal transplant. Significant glucose intolerance developed in one patient, requiring the addition of an oral hypoglycaemic agent. The 4 deaths that occurred were not directly related to treatment. Following the oral administration of 5 mg minoxidil, an obvious reduction in both the systolic and diastolic pressure was seen in two hours.