Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
J R Soc Med. 1982 October; 75(10): 799–811.
PMCID: PMC1438138

Ecological aspects of influenza A viruses in animals and their relationship to human influenza: a review.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Alexander DJ, Allan WH, Sillars T. Isolation of myxoviruses from dead birds arriving at Heathrow Airport, London. J Hyg (Lond) 1977 Oct;79(2):243–247. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Aymard M, Brigaud M, Chastel C, Fontaine M, Tillon JP, Vannier P. Comparaison de l'immunite serique anti influenza a de diverses populations humaines et des porcs. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1980;3(1-2):111–119. [PubMed]
  • Becker WB. The isolation and classification of Tern virus: influenza A-Tern South Africa--1961. J Hyg (Lond) 1966 Sep;64(3):309–320. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blaskovic D, Kapitáncik B, Sabó A, Styk B, Vrtiak O, Kaplan M. Experimental infection of horses with A-equi 2-Miami-1-63 and human A2-Hong Kong 1-68 influenza viruses. I. The course of infection and virus recovery. Acta Virol. 1969 Nov;13(6):499–506. [PubMed]
  • Bucher DJ, Kharitonenkov IG, Lvov DK, Pysina TV, Lee HM. Comparative study of influenza virus H2 (Asian) hemagglutinins isolated from human and avian sources. Intervirology. 1980;14(2):69–77. [PubMed]
  • Butterfield WK, Campbell CH, Shortridge KF. Identification of nonavid influenza A viruses containing human subtypes of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase isolated from poultry in Hong Kong. Proc Annu Meet U S Anim Health Assoc. 1978;(82):325–331. [PubMed]
  • Campbell CH, Webster RG, Breese SS., Jr Fowl plague virus from man. J Infect Dis. 1970 Dec;122(6):513–516. [PubMed]
  • Chapman MS, Lamont PH, Harkness JW. Serological evidence of continuing infection of swine in Great Britain with an influenza A virus (H3N2). J Hyg (Lond) 1978 Jun;80(3):415–422. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DAVENPORT FM, HENNESSY AV, FRANCIS T., Jr Epidemiologic and immunologic significance of age distribution of antibody to antigenic variants of influenza virus. J Exp Med. 1953 Dec;98(6):641–656. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Easterday BC. The epidemiology and ecology of swine influenza as a zoonotic disease. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1980;3(1-2):105–109. [PubMed]
  • Hannoun C, Devaux JM. Circulation enzootique permanente de virus grippaux dans la baie de la Somme. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1980;3(1-2):177–183. [PubMed]
  • Hannoun C, Gourreau JM. Surveillance de la grippe chez les porcs sains. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1980;3(1-2):133–136. [PubMed]
  • Harkness W, Schild GC, Lamont PH, Brand CM. Studies on relationships between human and porcine influenza. 1. Serological evidence of infection in swine in Great Britain with an influenza A virus antigenically like human Hong Kong-68 virus. Bull World Health Organ. 1972;46(6):709–719. [PubMed]
  • ESPMARK A, HELLER L, VIRIDEN P. Immunological relationship between infectious cough in horses and human influenza A. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch. 1956;7(1):120–124. [PubMed]
  • Hinshaw VS, Bean WJ, Jr, Webster RG, Easterday BC. The prevalence of influenza viruses in swine and the antigenic and genetic relatedness of influenza viruses from man and swine. Virology. 1978 Jan;84(1):51–62. [PubMed]
  • Hinshaw VS, Bean WJ, Webster RG, Sriram G. Genetic reassortment of influenza A viruses in the intestinal tract of ducks. Virology. 1980 Apr 30;102(2):412–419. [PubMed]
  • Hinshaw VS, Webster RG, Easterday BC, Bean WJ., Jr Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals. Infect Immun. 1981 Nov;34(2):354–361. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hinshaw VS, Webster RG, Rodriguez RJ. Influenza A viruses: combinations of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes isolated from animals and other sources. Arch Virol. 1981;67(3):191–201. [PubMed]
  • Hinshaw VS, Webster RG, Turner B. Novel influenza A viruses isolated from Canadian feral ducks: including strains antigenically related to swine influenza (Hsw1N1) viruses. J Gen Virol. 1978 Oct;41(1):115–127. [PubMed]
  • Hinshaw VS, Webster RG, Turner B. Water-bone transmission of influenza A viruses? Intervirology. 1979;11(1):66–68. [PubMed]
  • Hinshaw VS, Webster RG, Turner B. The perpetuation of orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in Canadian waterfowl. Can J Microbiol. 1980 May;26(5):622–629. [PubMed]
  • Iftimovici R, Iacobescu V, Petrescu A, Muţiu A, Chelaru M. Isolation of influenza virus A/USSR 90/77 (H1N1) from wild birds. Virologie. 1980 Jul-Sep;31(3):243–243. [PubMed]
  • Inglis SC, Almond JW. An influenza virus gene encoding two different proteins. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1980 Feb 25;288(1029):375–381. [PubMed]
  • Kaplan MM. The role of the World Health Organization in the study of influenza. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1980 Feb 25;288(1029):417–421. [PubMed]
  • Kaplan MM, Webster RG. The epidemiology of influenza. Sci Am. 1977 Dec;237(6):88–106. [PubMed]
  • Kasel JA, Couch RB. Experimental infection in man and horses with influenza A viruses. Bull World Health Organ. 1969;41(3):447–452. [PubMed]
  • KLUSKA V, MACKU M, MENSIK J. [Demonstration of antibodies against swine influenza viruses in man]. Cesk Pediatr. 1961 May;16:408–414. [PubMed]
  • Lang G, Gagnon A, Geraci JR. Isolation of an influenza A virus from seals. Arch Virol. 1981;68(3-4):189–195. [PubMed]
  • Laver WG, Webster RG. Ecology of influenza viruses in lower mammals and birds. Br Med Bull. 1979 Jan;35(1):29–33. [PubMed]
  • Matsuura Y, Yanagawa R, Noda H. Experimental infection of mink with influenza A viruses. Brief report. Arch Virol. 1979;62(1):71–76. [PubMed]
  • Mohan R, Saif YM, Erickson GA, Gustafson GA, Easterday BC. Serologic and epidemiologic evidence of infection in turkeys with an agent related to the swine influenza virus. Avian Dis. 1981 Jan-Mar;25(1):11–16. [PubMed]
  • Nerome K, Ishida M, Nakayama M, Oya A, Kanai C, Suwicha K. Antigenic and genetic analysis of A/Hong Kong (H3N2) influenza viruses isolated from swine and man. J Gen Virol. 1981 Oct;56(Pt 2):441–445. [PubMed]
  • Nerome K, Ishida M, Oya A, Kanai C, Suwicha K. Isolation of an influenza H1N1 virus from a pig. Virology. 1982 Mar;117(2):485–489. [PubMed]
  • O'Brien RJ, Noble GR, Easterday BC, Kendal AP, Shasby DM, Nelson DB, Hattwick MA, Dowdle WR. Swine-like influenza virus infection in a Wisconsin farm family. J Infect Dis. 1977 Dec;136 (Suppl):S390–S396. [PubMed]
  • Osidze NG, L'vov DK, Siurin VN, Smorzhevskaia LS, Lenchenko EV. Novaia raznovidnost' virusa grippa kur. Veterinariia. 1979 Sep;(9):29–31. [PubMed]
  • Ottis K, Bachmann PA. Occurrence of Hsw 1 N 1 subtype influenza A viruses in wild ducks in Europe. Arch Virol. 1980;63(3-4):185–190. [PubMed]
  • Pereira MS. The effects of shifts and drifts on the epidemiology of influenza in man. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1980 Feb 25;288(1029):423–432. [PubMed]
  • Sazonov AA, Lvov DK, Webster RG, Sokolova TV, Braude NA, Portyanko NV. Isolation of an influenza virus, similar to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) from a common murre at Sakhalin Island in U.S.S.R. (Strain A/common murre/Sakhalin/1/74). Arch Virol. 1977;53(1-2):1–7. [PubMed]
  • Schild GC. Evidence for a new type-specific structural antigen of the influenza virus particle. J Gen Virol. 1972 Apr;15(1):99–103. [PubMed]
  • Schild GC, Newman RW, Webster RG, Major D, Hinshaw VS. Antigenic analysis of influenza A virus surface antigens: considerations for the nomenclature of influenza virus. Brief review. Arch Virol. 1980;63(3-4):171–184. [PubMed]
  • Schnurrenberger PR, Woods GT, Martin RJ. Serologic evidence of human infection with swine influenza virus. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1970 Sep;102(3):356–361. [PubMed]
  • Scholtissek C. The genome of the influenza virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1978;80:139–169. [PubMed]
  • Scholtissek C, Rohde W, Von Hoyningen V, Rott R. On the origin of the human influenza virus subtypes H2N2 and H3N2. Virology. 1978 Jun 1;87(1):13–20. [PubMed]
  • Shortridge KF. H2N2 influenza viruses in domestic ducks. Lancet. 1979 Feb 24;1(8113):439–439. [PubMed]
  • Shortridge KF, Butterfield WK, Webster RG, Campbell CH. Isolation and characterization of influenza A viruses from avian species in Hong Kong. Bull World Health Organ. 1977;55(1):15–20. [PubMed]
  • Shortridge KF, Webster RG. Geographical distribution of swine (Hsw1N1) and Hong Kong (H3N2) influenza virus variants in pigs in Southeast Asia. Intervirology. 1979;11(1):9–15. [PubMed]
  • Shortridge KF, Webster RG, Butterfield WK, Campbell CH. Persistence of Hong Kong influenza virus variants in pigs. Science. 1977 Jun 24;196(4297):1454–1455. [PubMed]
  • Shortridge K, Webster RG, Kam SL, Gardner JM. Reappearance of H1N1 influenza virus in man: evidence for the persistence of the virus in domestic chickens. Bull World Health Organ. 1979;57(3):475–477. [PubMed]
  • Slemons RD, Johnson DC, Osborn JS, Hayes F. Type-A influenza viruses isolated from wild free-flying ducks in California. Avian Dis. 1974 Jan-Mar;18(1):119–124. [PubMed]
  • Smith TF, Burgert EO, Jr, Dowdle WR, Noble GR, Campbell RJ, Van Scoy RE. Isolation of swine influenza virus from autopsy lung tissue of man. N Engl J Med. 1976 Mar 25;294(13):708–710. [PubMed]
  • SOVINOVA O, TUMOVA B, POUSKA F, NEMEC J. Isolation of a virus causing respiratory disease in horses. Acta Virol. 1958 Jan-Mar;2(1):52–61. [PubMed]
  • Styk B, Sabó A, Blaskovic D, Masárová P, Russ G, Hána L. Antibody against Hong Kong influenza viruses in pigs. Acta Virol. 1971 May;15(3):211–219. [PubMed]
  • Tillon JP, Aymard M, Vannier P, Fontaine M. Incidence des infections a virus grippal chez le porc (1977-1979). enquete serologique dans des troupeaux de reproducteurs. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1980;3(1-2):121–131. [PubMed]
  • Tůmová B. Equine influenza--a segment in influenza virus ecology. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1980;3(1-2):45–59. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Campbell CH. Studies on the origin of pandemic influenza. IV. Selection and transmission of "new" influenza viruses in vivo. Virology. 1974 Dec;62(2):404–413. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Campbell CH, Granoff A. The "in vivo" production of "new" influenza viruses. 3. Isolation of recombinant influenza viruses under simulated conditions of natural transmission. Virology. 1973 Jan;51(1):149–162. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Geraci J, Petursson G, Skirnisson K. Conjunctivitis in human beings caused by influenza A virus of seals. N Engl J Med. 1981 Apr 9;304(15):911–911. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Hinshaw VS, Bean WJ, Jr, Turner B, Shortridge KF. Influenza viruses from avian and porcine sources and their possible role in the origin of human pandemic strains. Dev Biol Stand. 1977 Jun 1;39:461–468. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Hinshaw VS, Bean WJ, Van Wyke KL, Geraci JR, St Aubin DJ, Petursson G. Characterization of an influenza A virus from seals. Virology. 1981 Sep;113(2):712–724. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Laver WG, Air GM, Schild GC. Molecular mechanisms of variation in influenza viruses. Nature. 1982 Mar 11;296(5853):115–121. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Laver WG, Tumova B. Studies on the origin of pandemic influenza viruses V. Persistence of Asian influenza virus hemagglutinin (H2) antigen in nature? Virology. 1975 Oct;67(2):534–543. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Yakhno M, Hinshaw VS, Bean WJ, Murti KG. Intestinal influenza: replication and characterization of influenza viruses in ducks. Virology. 1978 Feb;84(2):268–278. [PubMed]
  • Yagyu K, Yanagawa R, Matsuura Y, Noda H. Contact infection of mink with influenza A viruses of avian and mammalian origin. Arch Virol. 1981;68(2):143–145. [PubMed]
  • Yamane N, Odagiri T, Arikawa J, Ishida N. Isolation and characterization of influenza A viruses from wild ducks in northern Japan: appearance of HSW1 antigens in the Japanese duck population. Acta Virol. 1979 Sep;23(5):375–384. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press