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J R Soc Med. 1980 May; 73(5): 328–332.
PMCID: PMC1437473

Blood lead concentrations in pre-school children in Birmingham1


A survey has been undertaken of the distribution of blood lead concentrations in pre-school children attending nursery schools or day centres in Birmingham. The majority of levels in excess of 1.65 μmol/1 were found in children of Asian origin. It is thought likely that the high blood lead concentration seen in these children is related to nutritional rather than environmental factors.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adebonojo FO, Strahs S. Reducing the lead burden of urban ghetto children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1974 Apr;13(4):310–passim. [PubMed]
  • Ali AR, Smales OR, Aslam M. Surma and lead poisoning. Br Med J. 1978 Sep 30;2(6142):915–916. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cernik AA. Determination of blood lead using a 4-0 mm paper punched disc carbon sampling cup technique. Br J Ind Med. 1974 Jul;31(3):239–244. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson NE, Tenuta K. Diets and lead blood levels of children who practice pica. Environ Res. 1979 Apr;18(2):369–376. [PubMed]
  • Josephs DS. Abnormal exposure to lead and anaemia in Luton Asian children. Public Health. 1977 May;91(3):133–140. [PubMed]
  • Klauder DS, Petering HG. Protective value of dietary copper and iron against some toxic effects of lead in rats. Environ Health Perspect. 1975 Dec;12:77–80. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roels HA, Buchet JP, Lauwerys R, Bruaux P, Claeys-Thoreau F, Lafontaine A, van Overschelde J, Verduyn G. Lead and cadmium absorption among children near a nonferrous metal plant: a follow-up study of a test case. Environ Res. 1978 Apr;15(2):290–308. [PubMed]
  • Sayre JW, Charney E, Vostal J, Pless IB. House and hand dust as a potential source of childhood lead exposure. Am J Dis Child. 1974 Feb;127(2):167–170. [PubMed]
  • Stuart J, Schwartz FC, Little AJ, Raine DN. Screening for abnormal haemoglobins: a pilot study. Br Med J. 1973 Nov 3;4(5887):284–287. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Waldron HA. Lead in the environment: preliminary communication. J R Soc Med. 1979 Oct;72(10):753–755. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

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