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Michigan's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program has screened more than 1.1 million Medicaid-eligible children since its inception in 1973. A study of its effects showed screening referral rates, but not medical costs, to be inversely related generally to the number of lifetime screenings received. Referrals from screening declined, on average, 4 to 9 percent as the number of lifetime screenings increased from 1 to 4. Medical costs for EPSDT participants were about 7 percent lower than medical costs for non-EPSDT participants when program costs were considered. Although the author acknowledges that a definitive study of EPSDT program effects has yet to be accomplished, he believes that modest gains are attributable to the program.