1. Hiday VA, Swartz M, Swanson JW, Borum R, Wagner HR. Impact of outpatient commitment on victimization of people with severe mental illness. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1403–1411. [PubMed] 2. Hiday VA, Swartz MS, Swanson JW, Borum R, Wagner HR. Criminal victimization of persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:62–68. [PubMed] 3. Marley JA, Buila S. Crimes against people with mental illness: types, perpetrators, and influencing factors. Soc Work. 2001;46:115–124. [PubMed] 4. Brekke JS, Prindle C, Bae SW, Long JD. Risks for individuals with schizophrenia who are living in the community. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52:1358–1366. [PubMed]
5. Silver E. Mental disorder and violent victimization: the mediating role of involvement in conflicted social relationships. Criminol. 2002;40:191–212.
6. Lehman AF, Linn LS. Crimes against discharged mental patients in board-and-care homes. Am J Psychiatry. 1984;141:271–274. [PubMed]
7. D’Ercole A, Struening E. Victimization among homeless women: implications for service delivery. J Community Psychol. 1990;18:141–152.
8. Luckasson R. People with mental retardation as victims of crime. In: Conley RW, Luckasson R, Bouthilet GN, eds. The Criminal Justice System and Mental Retardation: Defendants and Victims. Baltimore, Md: PH Brookes; 1992:209–220.
9. Holzman HR, Hyatt RA, Dempster JM. Patterns of aggravated assault in public housing: mapping the nexus of offense, place, gender, and race. Violence Against Women. 2001;7:662–684.
10. Goodman LA, Rosenberg SD, Mueser KT, Drake RE. Physical and sexual assault history in women with serious mental illness: prevalence, correlates, treatment, and future research directions. Schizophr Bull. 1997;23:685–696. [PubMed] 11. Darves-Bornoz JM, Lemperiere T, Degiovanni A, Gaillard P. Sexual victimization in women with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1995;30:78–84. [PubMed] 12. Hiday VA. The social context of mental illness and violence. J Health Soc Behav. 1995;36:122–137. [PubMed] 13. Sells DJ, Rowe M, Fisk D, Davidson L. Violent victimization of persons with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;54:1253–1257. [PubMed]
14. Logan TK, Walker R, Cole J, Leukefeld C. Victimization and substance abuse among women: contributing factors, interventions, and implications. Rev Gen Psychol. 2002;6:325–397.
15. Miethe TD, McDowall D. Contextual effects in models of criminal victimization. Soc Forces. 1993;71:741–761.
16. Cunradi CB, Caetano R, Clark CL, Schafer J. Alcohol-related problems and intimate partner violence among white, black, and Hispanic couples in the U.S. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1999;23:1492–1501. [PubMed]
17. Cunradi CB, Caetano R, Schafer J. Socioeconomic predictors of intimate partner violence among white, black, and Hispanic couples in the United States. J Fam Violence. 2002;17:377–389.
18. RachBeisel J, Scott J, Dixon L. Co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders: a review of recent research. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:1427–1434. [PubMed] 19. Lamb HR, Bachrach LL. Some perspectives on deinstitutionalization. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52:1039–1045. [PubMed] 20. Lamb HR, Weinberger LE, DeCuir WJ., Jr The police and mental health. Psychiatr Serv. 2002;53:1266–1271. [PubMed]
21. Manderscheid RW, Atay JE, Hernandez-Cartagena MR, Edmond PY, Male A, Parker ACE, Zhang H. Highlights of organized mental health services in 1998 and major national and state trends. In: Manderscheid RW, Henderson MJ, eds. Mental Health, United States, 2000. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2001:135–171.
22. Mechanic D. Mental health policy at the millennium: challenges and opportunities. In: Manderscheid RW, Henderson MJ, eds. Mental Health, United States, 2000. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 2001:53–63.
23. Shlay AB, Rossi PH. Social science research and contemporary studies of homelessness. Annu Rev Sociol. 1992;18:129–160.
24. North CS, Smith EM, Spitznagel EL. Violence and the homeless: an epidemiologic study of victimization and aggression. J Trauma Stress. 1994;7:95–110. [PubMed] 25. Drake RE, Osher FC, Wallach MA. Homelessness and dual diagnosis. Am Psychol. 1991;46:1149–1158. [PubMed] 26. Phelan JC, Link BG. Who are “the homeless”? reconsidering the stability and composition of the homeless population. Am J Public Health. 1999;89:1334–1338. [PubMed]
27. Crime Victims with Disabilities Awareness Act, Pub L No. 105–301,112 Stat 2838 (1998).
28. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Pub L No. 106–386, 114 Stat 1464 (2000).
29. Lehman AF, Ward NC, Linn LS. Chronic mental patients: the quality of life issue. Am J Psychiatry. 1982;139:1271–1276. [PubMed] 30. Cascardi M, Mueser KT, DeGiralomo J, Murrin M. Physical aggression against psychiatric inpatients by family members and partners. Psychiatr Serv. 1996;47:531–533. [PubMed] 31. Goodman LA, Salyers MP, Mueser KT, Rosenberg SD, Swartz M, Essock SM, Osher FC, Butterfield MI, Swanson J. 5 Site Health and Risk Study Research Committee. Recent victimization in women and men with severe mental illness: prevalence and correlates. J Trauma Stress. 2001;14:615–632. [PubMed] 32. Goodman LA, Thompson KM, Weinfurt K, Corl S, Acker P, Mueser KT, Rosenberg SD. Reliability of reports of violent victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among men and women with serious mental illness. J Trauma Stress. 1999;12:587–599. [PubMed] 33. Goodman LA, Dutton MA, Harris M. The relationship between violence dimensions and symptom severity among homeless mentally ill women. J Trauma Stress. 1997;10:51–70. [PubMed] 34. Lam JA, Rosenheck R. The effect of victimization on clinical outcomes of homeless persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 1998;49:678–683. [PubMed]
35. Saunders BE, Kilpatrick DG, Resnick HS, Tidwell RP. Brief screening for lifetime history of criminal victimization at mental health intake: a preliminary study. J Interpers Violence. 1989;4:267–277.
36. Silver E, Arseneault L, Langley J, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. Mental disorder and violent victimization in a total birth cohort. Am J Public Health. In press. [PubMed]
37. World Health Organization. Composite International Diagnostic Inteniew, Version 2.1. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1997.
38. US Bureau of the Census. Technical Background on the Redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington, DC: US Bureau of the Census; 1994.
39. Rennison CM, Rand MR. Criminal Victimization, 2002 (NCJ 199994). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2003.
40. Sparks RF. Survey methods in the study of victims and victimization. In: Sparks RF, ed. Research on Victims of Crime: Accomplishments, Issues, and New Directions. Rockville, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; 1982:41–64.
41. Kilpatrick DG, Saunders BE, Veronen LJ, Best CL, Von JM. Criminal victimization: lifetime prevalence, reporting to police, and psychological impact. Crime Delinq. 1987;33:479–489.
42. Skogan WG. Dimensions of the dark figure of unreported crime. Crime Delinq. 1977;23:41–50.
43. Wells LE, Rankin JH. Juvenile victimization: convergent validation of alternative measurements. J Res Crime Delinq. 1995;32:287–307.
44. Rand M. Criminal Victimization 1997: Changes 1996–97 With Trends 1993–97 (NCJ 173385). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 1998.
45. Rennison CM. Criminal Victimization 1998: Changes 1997–98 with Trends 1993–98 (NCJ 176353). Washington DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 1999.
46. Rennison CM. Criminal Victimization 1999: Changes 1998–99 with Trends 1993–99 (NCJ 182734). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2000.
47. Gaskell GD, Wright DB, O’muircheartaigh CA. Telescoping of landmark events: implications for survey research. Public Opin Q. 2000;64:77–89. [PubMed]
48. Skogan WG. Measurement problems in official and survey crime rates. In: Talerico SM, ed. Criminal Justice Research, Approaches, Problems and Policy. Athens, Ga: Anderson Publishing Co; 1980:45–61.
49. Skogan WG. The National Crime Survey redesign. Public Opin Q. 1990;54:256–272.
50. Schneider AL. Methodological problems in victim surveys and their implications for research in victimology. J Crim Law Criminol. 1981;72:818–838.
51. Gottfredson MR, Hindelang MJ. A consideration of telescoping and memory decay biases in victimization surveys. J Crim Justice. 1977;5:205–216.
52. Sparks RF, Genn HG, Dodd DJ. Surveying Victims: A Study of the Measurement of Criminal Victimization, Perceptions of Crime, and Attitudes to Criminal Justice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1977.
53. Stata Corp. Stata Reference Manual Release 7. College Station, Tex: Stata Corp; 2001.
54. US Department of Justice. National Crime Victimization Survey, 1992–1999. 9th ed [database]. Ann Arbor, Mich: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research; 2001.
55. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:617–627. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 56. US Census Bureau. Census 2000 summary file 1: age groups and sex: 2000. Available at: http://factfinder.census.gov Accessed June 30,2005.
57. Miller TR, Cohen MA, Wiersema B. Victim Costs and Consequences: A New Look (NCJ 155282). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice; 1996.
58. Sampson RJ, Lauritsen JL. Violent victimization and offending: individual-, situational-, and community-level risk factors. In: Reiss AJ, Roth JA, Miczek KA, eds. Understanding and Preventing Violence: Social Influences. Vol 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1933:1–114.
59. Klaus PA. Crimes Against Persons Age 65 or Older, 1992–97 (NCJ 176352). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2000.
60. Padgett DK, Struening EL. Victimization and traumatic injuries among the homeless: associations with alcohol, drug, and mental problems. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1992;62:525–534. [PubMed]
61. Petersilia JR. Crime victims with developmental disabilities: a review essay. Crim Justice Behav. 2001;28:655–694.
62. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Appendix IV: the nation’s 2 crime measures. In: Crime in the United States, 2002. Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation; 2002.
63. Kilpatrick DG, Acierno R. Mental health needs of crime victims: epidemiology and outcomes. J Trauma Stress. 2003;16:119–132. [PubMed] 64. Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Bruce ML, Koch JR, Laska EM, Leaf PJ, Manderscheid RW, Rosenheck RA, Walters EE, Wang PS. The prevalence and correlates of untreated serious mental illness. Health Serv Res. 2001;36:987–1007. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
65. Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Zhao S, Leaf PJ, Kouzis AC, Bruce ML, Friedman RM, Grosser RC, Kennedy C, Narrow WE, Kuehnel TG, Laska EM, Manderscheid RW, Rosenheck RA, Santoni TW, Schneier M. The 12-month prevalence and correlates of serious mental illness (SMI). In: Manderscheid RW, Sonnenschein MA, eds. Mental Health, United States, 1996. Rockville Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1996:59–70.
66. Wenzel SL, Koegel P, Gelberg L. Antecedents of physical and sexual victimization among homeless women: a comparison to homeless men. Am J Community Psychol. 2000;28:367–390. [PubMed]
67. Lauritsen JL. The social ecology of violent victimization: individual and contextual effects in the NCVS. J Quant Criminol. 2001;17:3–32.
68. Elklit A. Acute stress disorder in victims of robbery and victims of assault. J Interpers Violence. 2002;17:872–887.
69. Boudreaux E, Kilpatrick DG, Resnick HS, Best CL, Saunders BE. Criminal victimization, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid psychopathology among a community sample of women. J Trauma Stress. 1998;11:665–678. [PubMed] 70. Pathe M, Mullen PE. The impact of stalkers on their victims. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;170:12–17. [PubMed] 71. Resnick HS, Kilpatrick DG, Dansky BS, Saunders BE, Best CL. Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993;61:984–991. [PubMed] 72. Burnam MA, Stein JA, Golding JM, Siegel JM, Sorenson SB, Forsythe AB, Telles CA. Sexual assault and mental disorders in a community population. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:843–850. [PubMed] 73. Mueser KT, Goodman LB, Trumbetta SL, Rosenberg SD, Osher FC, Vidaver R, Auciello P. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998;66:493–499. [PubMed] 74. Jacobson A, Richardson B. Assault experiences of 100 psychiatric inpatients: evidence of the need for routine inquiry. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144:908–913. [PubMed] 75. Hiday VA, Swanson JW, Swartz MS, Borum R, Wagner HR. Victimization: a link between mental illness and violence? Int J Law Psychiatry. 2001;24:559–572. [PubMed] 76. Swanson JW, Swartz MS, Essock SM, Osher FC, Wagner R, Goodman LA, Rosenberg SD, Meador KG. The social-environmental context of violent behavior in persons treated for severe mental illness. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1523–1531. [PubMed] 77. Widom CS. Does violence beget violence? a critical examination of the literature. Psychol Bull. 1989;106:3–28. [PubMed] 78. Lansford JE, Dodge KA, Pettit GS, Bates JE, Crazier J, Kaplow J. A 12-year prospective study of the long-term effects of early child physical maltreatment on psychological, behavioral, and academic problems in adolescence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156:824–830. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 79. Corrigan PW, Holmes EP. Patient identification of street skills for a psychosocial training module. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1994;45:273–276. [PubMed] 80. Chermack ST, Walton MA, Fuller BE, Blow FC. Correlates of expressed and received violence across relationship types among men and women substance abusers. Psychol Addict Behav. 2001;15:140–151. [PubMed] 81. Messman-Moore TL, Long PJ. Alcohol and substance use disorders as predictors of child to adult sexual revictimization in a sample of community women. Violence Vict. 2002;17:319–340. [PubMed] 82. McQuistion HL, Finnerty M, Hirschowitz J, Susser M. Challenges for psychiatry in serving homeless people with psychiatric disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;54:669–676. [PubMed] 83. Seedat S, Stein MB, Oosthuizen PP, Emsley RA, Stein DJ. Linking posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosis: a look at epidemiology, phenomenology, and treatment. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2003;191:675–681. [PubMed] 84. Resnick SG, Bond GR, Mueser KT. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in people with schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol. 2003;112:415–423. [PubMed] 85. Sautter FJ, Brailey K, Uddo MM, Hamilton MF, Beard MG, Borges AH. PTSD and comorbid psychotic disorder: comparison with veterans diagnosed with PTSD or psychotic disorder. J Trauma Stress. 1999;12:73–89. [PubMed] 86. Mueser KT, Rosenberg SD, Goodman LA, Trumbetta SL. Trauma, PTSD, and the course of severe mental illness: an interactive model. Schizophr Res. 2002;53:123–143. [PubMed] 87. Zimmerman M, Mattia JI. Is posttraumatic stress disorder underdiagnosed in routine clinical settings? J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999;187:420–428. [PubMed] 88. Teplin LA. Criminalizing mental disorder: the comparative arrest rate of the mentally ill. Am Psychol. 1984;39:794–803. [PubMed]
89. Hails J, Borum R. Police training and specialized approaches to respond to people with mental illnesses. Crime Delinq. 2003;49:52–61.
90. Link BG, Phelan JC, Bresnahan M, Stueve A, Pescosolido BA. Public conceptions of mental illness: labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance. Am J Public Health. 1999;89:1328–1333. [PubMed]
91. Pescosolido BA, Boyer CA. How do people come to use mental health services? current knowledge and changing perspectives. In: Horwitz AV, Scheid TL, eds. A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1999:392–411.