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Appl Environ Microbiol. Jan 1996; 62(1): 128–132.
PMCID: PMC1388745
Enhanced Glycerol Content in Wines Made with Immobilized Candida stellata Cells
M. Ciani and L. Ferraro
Abstract
Screening tests carried out for 10 strains of Candida stellata confirmed high levels of glycerol production, although a low fermentation rate and reduced ethanol content were observed. To overcome the poor competition with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation tests with immobilized C. stellata cells, alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae, have been carried out. The immobilization of C. stellata cells consistently reduced the fermentation length when compared with that obtained with free cells, immobilized cells exhibiting about a 30-and a 2-fold improvement in fermentation rate compared with rates for C. stellata and S. cerevisiae free cells, respectively. Moreover, immobilized C. stellata cells produced a twofold increase in ethanol content and a strong reduction in acetaldehyde and acetoin production in comparison with levels for free cells. The evaluation of different combinations of C. stellata immobilized cells and S. cerevisiae showed interesting results with regard to analytical profiles for practical application in wine making. In fact, analytical profiles of combinations showed, apart from a high glycerol content, a reduction in the amounts of acetic acid and higher alcohols and a consistent increase in succinic acid content in comparison with values for the S. cerevisiae control strain. Sequential fermentation first with immobilized C. stellata cells and then after 3 days with an added inoculum of S. cerevisiae free cells was the best combination, producing 15.10 g of glycerol per liter, i.e., 136% more than the S. cerevisiae control strain produced. Fermentation with immobilized C. stellata cells could be an interesting process by which to enhance glycerol content in wine.
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