PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of pubhealthrepPublic Health Reports
 
Public Health Rep. 1996 Sep-Oct; 111(5): 420–427.
PMCID: PMC1381785

Differences between studies in reported relative risks associated with smoking: an overview.

Abstract

Reported Relative Risks associated with smoking differ between studies; these differences may reflect true biological differences between populations or may be research artifacts introduced by differences in factors such as amount smoked or smoking duration. The authors reviewed the literature published before June 1992 on relative risks associated with smoking for heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive lung disease. They quantified the effect of variables such as age, amount smoked, and smoking duration on reported relative risks. The main reasons for the variation in reported relative risks were: misclassification of former smokers as never smokers, the use of mortality rate ratios rather than incidence rate ratios, a possible period effect suggesting increasing relative risks over time, and differences in the amounts smoked. It is far more likely that these factors are responsible for the observed variation between studies than that the variations reflect true biological differences between populations. Using relative risks from other studies is therefore justified in calculating a population attributable risk if the studies are carefully selected and address factors such as amount smoked and period effects.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Gunning-Schepers L. The health benefits of prevention: a simulation approach. Health Policy. 1989 Jul;12(1-2):1–255. [PubMed]
  • Gunning-Schepers LJ, Barendregt JJ, Van Der Maas PJ. Population interventions reassessed. Lancet. 1989 Mar 4;1(8636):479–481. [PubMed]
  • Gunning-Schepers LJ, Barendregt JJ. Timeless epidemiology or history cannot be ignored. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992 Apr;45(4):365–372. [PubMed]
  • van de Mheen PJ, Bonneux L, Gunning-Schepers LJ. Variation in reported prevalences of hypertension in The Netherlands: the impact of methodological variables. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1995 Jun;49(3):277–280. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strachan D, Rose G. Strategies of prevention revisited: effects of imprecise measurement of risk factors on the evaluation of "high-risk" and "population-based" approaches to prevention of cardiovascular disease. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44(11):1187–1196. [PubMed]
  • Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ. 1994 Oct 8;309(6959):901–911. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Psaty BM, Koepsell TD, Manolio TA, Longstreth WT, Jr, Wagner EH, Wahl PW, Kronmal RA. Risk ratios and risk differences in estimating the effect of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the elderly. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43(9):961–970. [PubMed]
  • Shinton R, Beevers G. Meta-analysis of relation between cigarette smoking and stroke. BMJ. 1989 Mar 25;298(6676):789–794. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Floderus B, Cederlöf R, Friberg L. Smoking and mortality: a 21-year follow-up based on the Swedish Twin Registry. Int J Epidemiol. 1988 Jun;17(2):332–340. [PubMed]
  • Willett WC, Green A, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Monson RR, Stason W, Hennekens CH. Relative and absolute excess risks of coronary heart disease among women who smoke cigarettes. N Engl J Med. 1987 Nov 19;317(21):1303–1309. [PubMed]
  • Rosenberg L, Shapiro S, Kaufman DW, Slone D, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD. Cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of myocardial infarction in young women. Modifying influence of age and predisposing factors. Int J Epidemiol. 1980 Mar;9(1):57–63. [PubMed]
  • Rogot E, Murray JL. Smoking and causes of death among U.S. veterans: 16 years of observation. Public Health Rep. 1980 May-Jun;95(3):213–222. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fuller JH, Shipley MJ, Rose G, Jarrett RJ, Keen H. Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke in relation to degree of glycaemia: the Whitehall study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983 Sep 24;287(6396):867–870. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Akiba S, Hirayama T. Cigarette smoking and cancer mortality risk in Japanese men and women--results from reanalysis of the six-prefecture cohort study data. Environ Health Perspect. 1990 Jul;87:19–26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Doll R, Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 20 years' observations on male British doctors. Br Med J. 1976 Dec 25;2(6051):1525–1536. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Doll R, Gray R, Hafner B, Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 22 years' observations on female British doctors. Br Med J. 1980 Apr 5;280(6219):967–971. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mizuno S, Akiba S, Hirayama T. Lung cancer risk comparison among male smokers between the "six-prefecture cohort" in Japan and the British physicians' cohort. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1989 Dec;80(12):1165–1170. [PubMed]
  • LaCroix AZ, Lang J, Scherr P, Wallace RB, Cornoni-Huntley J, Berkman L, Curb JD, Evans D, Hennekens CH. Smoking and mortality among older men and women in three communities. N Engl J Med. 1991 Jun 6;324(23):1619–1625. [PubMed]
  • Shopland DR, Eyre HJ, Pechacek TF. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality in 1991: is lung cancer now the leading cause of death among smokers in the United States? J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991 Aug 21;83(16):1142–1148. [PubMed]
  • Ebi-Kryston KL. Predicting 15 year chronic bronchitis mortality in the Whitehall Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1989 Jun;43(2):168–172. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rosenberg L, Kaufman DW, Helmrich SP, Shapiro S. The risk of myocardial infarction after quitting smoking in men under 55 years of age. N Engl J Med. 1985 Dec 12;313(24):1511–1514. [PubMed]
  • Colditz GA, Bonita R, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. Cigarette smoking and risk of stroke in middle-aged women. N Engl J Med. 1988 Apr 14;318(15):937–941. [PubMed]
  • Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Shapiro S. Decline in the risk of myocardial infarction among women who stop smoking. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jan 25;322(4):213–217. [PubMed]
  • Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE, Rosner B, Hunter DJ, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Smoking cessation in relation to total mortality rates in women. A prospective cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Nov 15;119(10):992–1000. [PubMed]
  • Wigle DT, Mao Y, Grace M. Relative importance of smoking as a risk factor for selected cancers. Can J Public Health. 1980 Jul-Aug;71(4):269–275. [PubMed]
  • Marmot MG, Syme SL, Kagan A, Kato H, Cohen JB, Belsky J. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: prevalence of coronary and hypertensive heart disease and associated risk factors. Am J Epidemiol. 1975 Dec;102(6):514–525. [PubMed]
  • GORDON T. Mortality experience among the Japanese in the United States, Hawaii, and Japan. Public Health Rep. 1957 Jun;72(6):543–553. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ockene JK, Kuller LH, Svendsen KH, Meilahn E. The relationship of smoking cessation to coronary heart disease and lung cancer in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Am J Public Health. 1990 Aug;80(8):954–958. [PubMed]
  • Shapiro S, Weinblatt E, Frank CW, Sager RV. Incidence of coronary heart disease in a population insured for medical care (HIP): myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and possible myocardial infarction. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1969;59 (Suppl 6):1–101. [PubMed]

Articles from Public Health Reports are provided here courtesy of SAGE Publications