Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of gutGutView this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Gut. 1992 October; 33(10): 1358–1364.
PMCID: PMC1379604

IgG subclass distribution in serum and rectal mucosa of monozygotic twins with or without inflammatory bowel disease.


Serum samples from 26 monozygotic twin pairs concordant or discordant with regard to inflammatory bowel disease, and rectal biopsies from 42 twins of the same subject group, were examined for IgG subclasses. They were all compared with normal controls. Almost all affected twins were in clinical remission. Paired immunofluorescence staining of the rectal mucosa showed that those with ulcerative colitis had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) proportion of IgG1 producing mucosal immunocytes than normal controls (78.1% v 55.9%). Conversely, the IgG2 cell fraction was significantly reduced (15.9% v 34.6%). Healthy twins from ulcerative colitis pairs tended to show a raised proportion of IgG1 cells and the IgG2 cell fraction was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). In discordant ulcerative colitis twin pairs, no difference appeared in the cellular IgG subclass pattern between healthy and affected twins. Furthermore, the proportion of IgG1 in these healthy and diseased twins showed good correlation (T = 0.867). The results in rectal mucosa of twins with Crohn's disease were widely scattered and affected twins did not differ significantly from normal controls. Healthy twins, however, showed a marginally raised IgG1 cell proportion, but no correlation was seen between the IgG subclass fractions in discordant Crohn's disease twin pairs. The serum concentrations of IgG1 and IgG2 did not differ from normal controls in twins of either category. These results suggested that in ulcerative colitis, the aberrant mucosal production of IgG1 and IgG2 does not depend on active disease, but is apparently at least partially explained by a genetic impact. Conversely, the mucosal IgG subclass pattern in Crohn's disease appears to be determined mainly by exogenous variables.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Baklien K, Brandtzaeg P. Comparative mapping of the local distribution of immunoglobulin-containing cells in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease of the colon. Clin Exp Immunol. 1975 Nov;22(2):197–209. [PubMed]
  • Scott MG, Nahm MH, Macke K, Nash GS, Bertovich MJ, MacDermott RP. Spontaneous secretion of IgG subclasses by intestinal mononuclear cells: differences between ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and controls. Clin Exp Immunol. 1986 Oct;66(1):209–215. [PubMed]
  • Garred P, Michaelsen TE, Aase A. The IgG subclass pattern of complement activation depends on epitope density and antibody and complement concentration. Scand J Immunol. 1989 Sep;30(3):379–382. [PubMed]
  • Kumpel BM, Wiener E, Urbaniak SJ, Bradley BA. Human monoclonal anti-D antibodies. II. The relationship between IgG subclass, Gm allotype and Fc mediated function. Br J Haematol. 1989 Mar;71(3):415–420. [PubMed]
  • Kett K, Rognum TO, Brandtzaeg P. Mucosal subclass distribution of immunoglobulin G-producing cells is different in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease of the colon. Gastroenterology. 1987 Nov;93(5):919–924. [PubMed]
  • MacDermott RP, Nash GS, Auer IO, Shlien R, Lewis BS, Madassery J, Nahm MH. Alterations in serum immunoglobulin G subclasses in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 1989 Mar;96(3):764–768. [PubMed]
  • Tysk C, Lindberg E, Järnerot G, Flodérus-Myrhed B. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in an unselected population of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. A study of heritability and the influence of smoking. Gut. 1988 Jul;29(7):990–996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • CEDERLOF R, FRIBERG L, JONSSON E, KAIJ L. Studies on similarity diagnosis in twins with the aid of mailed questionnaires. Acta Genet Stat Med. 1961;11:338–362. [PubMed]
  • Jefferis R, Reimer CB, Skvaril F, de Lange G, Ling NR, Lowe J, Walker MR, Phillips DJ, Aloisio CH, Wells TW, et al. Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies having specificity for human IgG sub-classes: results of an IUIS/WHO collaborative study. Immunol Lett. 1985;10(3-4):223–252. [PubMed]
  • Brandtzaeg P, Kett K, Rognum TO, Söderström R, Björkander J, Söderström T, Petrusson B, Hanson LA. Distribution of mucosal IgA and IgG subclass-producing immunocytes and alterations in various disorders. Monogr Allergy. 1986;20:179–194. [PubMed]
  • Nilssen DE, Söderström R, Brandtzaeg P, Kett K, Helgeland L, Karlsson G, Söderström T, Hanson LA. Isotype distribution of mucosal IgG-producing cells in patients with various IgG subclass deficiencies. Clin Exp Immunol. 1991 Jan;83(1):17–24. [PubMed]
  • Mancini G, Carbonara AO, Heremans JF. Immunochemical quantitation of antigens by single radial immunodiffusion. Immunochemistry. 1965 Sep;2(3):235–254. [PubMed]
  • Scott BB, Goodall A, Stephenson P, Jenkins D. Rectal mucosal plasma cells in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1983 Jun;24(6):519–524. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Keren DF, Appelman HD, Dobbins WO, 3rd, Wells JJ, Whisenant B, Foley J, Dieterle R, Geisinger K. Correlation of histopathologic evidence of disease activity with the presence of immunoglobulin-containing cells in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Hum Pathol. 1984 Aug;15(8):757–763. [PubMed]
  • Rautonen N, Sarvas H, Mäkelä O. One allele [G2m(n)] of the human IgG2 locus is more productive than the other. Eur J Immunol. 1989 May;19(5):817–822. [PubMed]
  • Morell A, Vassalli G, DeLange GG, Skvaril F, Ambrosino DM, Siber GR. Ig allotype-linked regulation of class and subclass composition of natural antibodies to group A streptococcal carbohydrate. J Immunol. 1989 Apr 1;142(7):2495–2500. [PubMed]
  • Sarvas H, Rautonen N, Sipinen S, Mäkelä O. IgG subclasses of pneumococcal antibodies--effect of allotype G2m(n). Scand J Immunol. 1989 Feb;29(2):229–237. [PubMed]
  • Purrmann J, Bertrams J, Knapp M, Cleveland S, Gemsa R, Hengels KJ, Strohmeyer G. Investigation of genetic markers in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Z Gastroenterol. 1989 Jul;27(7):366–369. [PubMed]
  • Shakib F, Stanworth DR. Human IgG subclasses in health and disease. (A review). Part II. Ric Clin Lab. 1980 Oct-Dec;10(4):561–580. [PubMed]
  • Oxelius VA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and human disease. Am J Med. 1984 Mar 30;76(3A):7–18. [PubMed]
  • Lerner A, Rossi TM, Park B, Albini B, Lebenthal E. Serum antibodies to cow's milk proteins in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's disease versus ulcerative colitis. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1989 May;78(3):384–389. [PubMed]
  • Paganelli R, Pallone F, Montano S, Le Moli S, Matricardi PM, Fais S, Paoluzi P, D'Amelio R, Aiuti F. Isotypic analysis of antibody response to a food antigen in inflammatory bowel disease. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1985;78(1):81–85. [PubMed]
  • Bull K, Matthews N, Rhodes J. Antibody response to anaerobic coccoid rods in Crohn's disease. J Clin Pathol. 1986 Oct;39(10):1130–1134. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Skogh T, Bodemar G, Kihlström E, Ljunghusen O. Anti-brush border antibodies (ABBA) in sera from patients with ulcerative proctocolitis and in sera with antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1986 Mar;19(3):117–118. [PubMed]
  • Zauli D, Crespi C, Dall'Amore P, Bianchi FB, Pisi E. Antibodies to the cytoskeleton components and other autoantibodies in inflammatory bowel disease. Digestion. 1985;32(2):140–144. [PubMed]
  • Hibi T, Aiso S, Ishikawa M, Watanabe M, Yoshida T, Kobayashi K, Asakura H, Tsuru S, Tsuchiya M. Circulating antibodies to the surface antigens on colon epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 1983 Oct;54(1):163–168. [PubMed]
  • Fiocchi C, Roche JK, Michener WM. High prevalence of antibodies to intestinal epithelial antigens in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and their relatives. Ann Intern Med. 1989 May 15;110(10):786–794. [PubMed]
  • Takahashi F, Das KM. Isolation and characterization of a colonic autoantigen specifically recognized by colon tissue-bound immunoglobulin G from idiopathic ulcerative colitis. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jul;76(1):311–318. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Halstensen TS, Mollnes TE, Garred P, Fausa O, Brandtzaeg P. Epithelial deposition of immunoglobulin G1 and activated complement (C3b and terminal complement complex) in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 1990 May;98(5 Pt 1):1264–1271. [PubMed]
  • Kagnoff MF, Brown RJ, Schanfield MS. Association between Crohn's disease and immunoglobulin heavy chain (Gm) allotypes. Gastroenterology. 1983 Nov;85(5):1044–1047. [PubMed]
  • Field LL, Boyd N, Bowen TJ, Kelly JK, Sutherland LR. Genetic markers and inflammatory bowel disease: immunoglobulin allotypes (GM, KM) and protease inhibitor. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989 Jul;84(7):753–755. [PubMed]

Articles from Gut are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group