PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of gutGutView this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
 
Gut. 1992 May; 33(5): 632–638.
PMCID: PMC1379292

Serum IgG subclass antibodies to a variety of food antigens in patients with coeliac disease.

Abstract

Levels of serum IgA, IgG, and IgG subclass antibodies to a variety of dietary antigens were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays in 14 adults with untreated coeliac disease and in 10 disease controls selected because of raised total IgG activities. The untreated coeliacs showed somewhat higher total IgG activity (p approximately 0.05) and significantly raised IgA and IgG1 + IgG3 activities to gliadin but reduced IgG4 activity (p less than 0.02) compared with the controls. High IgA and IgG1 + IgG3 activities were positively correlated (r = 0.67, p less than 0.01), and so were IgG and IgG4 activities (r = 0.64, p less than 0.02). Conversely, a high IgG2 response to gliadin appeared related to a low IgA response (r = 0.55, p less than 0.05). The IgG2 response was most prominent to oat flour antigens, followed by IgG1; and the main response to soy antigens resided in IgG1, followed by IgG2 in both disease groups. There was no difference in antibody activities to oat and soy between the two groups, and raised activity to bovine serum albumin was seldom encountered. The IgA activity to alpha-lactalbumin and ovalbumin tended to be increased in the coeliacs compared with the controls. The IgG4 subclass dominated the IgG response to beta-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin and was often raised to alpha-lactalbumin, especially in the disease controls. The IgG subclass pattern to casein parallelled that to gliadin with dominance of the IgG1- and IgG3-subclass activities, especially in the coeliacs. The phlogistic potential of a response in these two subclasses might be relevant to the pathogenesis of coeliac disease and could contribute to a raised IgA gliadin response by increasing mucosal permeability. IgA activity seemed to be highest against antigens usually involved in IgE mediated food allergy.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Brandtzaeg P, Bengtsson U, Halstensen TS, Hvatum M, Kett K, Rognum TO, Scott H, Sollid LM. Mucosal immunology and food antigens. Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1991;(48):30–54. [PubMed]
  • Poulsen HL. Interstitial fluid concentrations of albumin and immunoglobulin G in normal men. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1974 Oct;34(2):119–122. [PubMed]
  • Gallagher RB, Cervi P, Kelly J, Dolan C, Weir DG, Feighery C. The subclass profile and complement activating potential of anti-alpha-gliadin antibodies in coeliac disease. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1989 Mar;28(3):115–121. [PubMed]
  • Scott H, Fausa O, Ek J, Brandtzaeg P. Immune response patterns in coeliac disease. Serum antibodies to dietary antigens measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clin Exp Immunol. 1984 Jul;57(1):25–32. [PubMed]
  • Baklien K, Brandtzaeg P, Fausa O. Immunoglobulins in jejunal mucosa and serum from patients with adult coeliac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1977;12(2):149–159. [PubMed]
  • Juto P, Fredrikzon B, Hernell O. Gliadin-specific serum immunoglobulins A, E, G, and M in childhood: relation to small intestine mucosal morphology. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1985 Oct;4(5):723–729. [PubMed]
  • Bürgin-Wolff A, Berger R, Gaze H, Huber H, Lentze MJ, Nusslé D. IgG, IgA and IgE gliadin antibody determinations as screening test for untreated coeliac disease in children, a multicentre study. Eur J Pediatr. 1989 Apr;148(6):496–502. [PubMed]
  • Ståhlberg MR, Savilahti E, Viander M. Antibodies to gliadin by ELISA as a screening test for childhood celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1986 Sep-Oct;5(5):726–729. [PubMed]
  • Stenhammar L, Kilander AF, Nilsson LA, Strömberg L, Tarkowski A. Serum gliadin antibodies for detection and control of childhood coeliac disease. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1984 Sep;73(5):657–663. [PubMed]
  • Friis SU, Gudmand-Høyer E. Screening for coeliac disease in adults by simultaneous determination of IgA and IgG gliadin antibodies. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986 Nov;21(9):1058–1062. [PubMed]
  • Scott H, Ek J, Havnen J, Michalsen H, Brunvand L, Howlid H, Brandtzaeg P. Serum antibodies to dietary antigens: a prospective study of the diagnostic usefulness in celiac disease of children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1990 Aug;11(2):215–220. [PubMed]
  • Scott H, Fausa O, Ek J, Valnes K, Blystad L, Brandtzaeg P. Measurements of serum IgA and IgG activities to dietary antigens. A prospective study of the diagnostic usefulness in adult coeliac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990 Mar;25(3):287–292. [PubMed]
  • Papadea C, Check IJ. Human immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin G subclasses: biochemical, genetic, and clinical aspects. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 1989;27(1):27–58. [PubMed]
  • Urbanek R. IgG subclasses and subclass distribution in allergic disorders. Monogr Allergy. 1988;23:33–40. [PubMed]
  • Hvatum M, Scott H, Brandtzaeg P. Pitfalls in determining IgG and IgG subclass antibodies to food antigens. J Immunol Methods. 1992 Apr 8;148(1-2):77–85. [PubMed]
  • Husby S, Foged N, Oxelius VA, Svehag SE. Serum IgG subclass antibodies to gliadin and other dietary antigens in children with coeliac disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 1986 Jun;64(3):526–535. [PubMed]
  • Kemeny DM, Urbanek R, Amlot PL, Ciclitira PJ, Richards D, Lessof MH. Sub-class of IgG in allergic disease. I. IgG sub-class antibodies in immediate and non-immediate food allergy. Clin Allergy. 1986 Nov;16(6):571–581. [PubMed]
  • Barnes RM, Harvey MM, Blears J, Finn R, Johnson PM. IgG subclass of human serum antibodies reactive with dietary proteins. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1986;81(2):141–147. [PubMed]
  • Rawcliffe PM, Jewell DP, Faux JA. Specific IgG subclass antibodies, IgE and IgG S-TS antibodies to wheat gluten fraction B in patients with coeliac disease. Clin Allergy. 1985 Mar;15(2):155–162. [PubMed]
  • Ciclitira PJ, Ellis HJ, Richards D, Kemeny DM. Gliadin IgG subclass antibodies in patients with coeliac disease. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1986;80(3):258–261. [PubMed]
  • Rognum TO, Kett K, Fausa O, Bengtsson U, Kilander A, Scott H, Gaarder PI, Brandtzaeg P. Raised number of jejunal IgG2-producing cells in untreated adult coeliac disease compared with food allergy. Gut. 1989 Nov;30(11):1574–1580. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Merrett J, Burr ML, Merrett TG. A community survey of IgG4 antibody levels. Clin Allergy. 1983 Sep;13(5):397–407. [PubMed]
  • Bjerke K, Brandtzaeg P. Terminally differentiated human intestinal B cells. IgA and IgG subclass-producing immunocytes in the distal ileum, including Peyer's patches, compared with lymph nodes and palatine tonsils. Scand J Immunol. 1990 Aug;32(2):61–67. [PubMed]
  • Shakib F. Aspects of the pathological significance of IgG4. Exp Clin Immunogenet. 1987;4(4):193–200. [PubMed]
  • Aalberse RC, van der Gaag R, van Leeuwen J. Serologic aspects of IgG4 antibodies. I. Prolonged immunization results in an IgG4-restricted response. J Immunol. 1983 Feb;130(2):722–726. [PubMed]
  • Djurup R, Osterballe O. IgG subclass antibody response in grass pollen-allergic patients undergoing specific immunotherapy. Prognostic value of serum IgG subclass antibody levels early in immunotherapy. Allergy. 1984 Aug;39(6):433–441. [PubMed]
  • Hammarström L, Persson MA, Smith CI. Subclass distribution of human anti-Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin antibodies: suggestion of an IgG1, IgA1, IgG4 switch pattern. Scand J Immunol. 1984 Sep;20(3):247–250. [PubMed]
  • Djurup R, Malling HJ, Søndergaard I, Weeke B. The IgE and IgG subclass antibody response in patients allergic to yellow jacket venom undergoing different regimens of venom immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1985 Jul;76(1):46–55. [PubMed]
  • Persson MA, Ekwall E, Hammarström L, Lindberg AA, Smith CI. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA subclass pattern of human antibodies to Shigella flexneri and Salmonella serogroup B and D lipopolysaccharide O antigens. Infect Immun. 1986 Jun;52(3):834–839. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spiegelberg HL. Biological activities of immunoglobulins of different classes and subclasses. Adv Immunol. 1974;19(0):259–294. [PubMed]
  • Unkeless JC, Fleit H, Mellman IS. Structural Aspects and Heterogeneity of Immunoglobulin Fc Receptors. Adv Immunol. 1981;31:247–270. [PubMed]
  • Garred P, Michaelsen TE, Aase A. The IgG subclass pattern of complement activation depends on epitope density and antibody and complement concentration. Scand J Immunol. 1989 Sep;30(3):379–382. [PubMed]
  • Michaelsen TE, Garred P, Aase A. Human IgG subclass pattern of inducing complement-mediated cytolysis depends on antigen concentration and to a lesser extent on epitope patchiness, antibody affinity and complement concentration. Eur J Immunol. 1991 Jan;21(1):11–16. [PubMed]
  • Isenman DE, Dorrington KJ, Painter RH. The structure and function of immunoglobulin domains. II. The importance of interchain disulfide bonds and the possible role of molecular flexibility in the interaction between immunoglobulin G and complement. J Immunol. 1975 Jun;114(6):1726–1729. [PubMed]
  • van der Zee JS, van Swieten P, Aalberse RC. Inhibition of complement activation by IgG4 antibodies. Clin Exp Immunol. 1986 May;64(2):415–422. [PubMed]
  • Halpern GM, Scott JR. Non-IgE antibody mediated mechanisms in food allergy. Ann Allergy. 1987 Jan;58(1):14–27. [PubMed]
  • van der Giessen M, Homan WL, van Kernbeek G, Aalberse RC, Dieges PH. Subclass typing of IgG antibodies formed by grass pollen-allergic patients during immunotherapy. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1976;50(5):625–640. [PubMed]
  • Reisman RE, Osur SL. Allergic reactions following first insect sting exposure. Ann Allergy. 1987 Dec;59(6):429–432. [PubMed]
  • Nagata S, Glovsky MM. Activation of human serum complement with allergens. I. Generation of C3a, C4a, and C5a and induction of human neutrophil aggregation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1987 Jul;80(1):24–32. [PubMed]
  • Lavö B, Knutson L, Löf L, Odlind B, Venge P, Hällgren R. Challenge with gliadin induces eosinophil and mast cell activation in the jejunum of patients with celiac disease. Am J Med. 1989 Dec;87(6):655–660. [PubMed]
  • Kett K, Scott H, Fausa O, Brandtzaeg P. Secretory immunity in celiac disease: cellular expression of immunoglobulin A subclass and joining chain. Gastroenterology. 1990 Aug;99(2):386–392. [PubMed]

Articles from Gut are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group