PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of gutGutView this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
 
Gut. 1993 June; 34(6): 843–847.
PMCID: PMC1374273

Alcohol and gastric acid secretion in humans.

Abstract

The secretory response of gastric acid to pure ethanol and alcoholic beverages may be different because the action of the non-ethanolic contents of the beverage may overwhelm that of ethanol. Pure ethanol in low concentrations (< 5% vol/vol) is a mild stimulant of acid secretion whereas at higher concentrations it has either no effect or a mildly inhibitory one. Pure ethanol given by any route does not cause release of gastrin in humans. Alcoholic beverages with low ethanol content (beer and wine) are strong stimulants of gastric acid secretion and gastrin release, the effect of beer being equal to the maximal acid output. Beverages with a higher ethanol content (whisky, gin, cognac) do not stimulate gastric acid secretion or release of gastrin. The powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion present in beer, which are yet to be identified, are thermostable and anionic polar substances. The effect of chronic alcohol abuse on gastric acid secretion is not as predictable. Chronic alcoholic patients may have normal, enhanced, or diminished acid secretory capacity; hypochlorhydria being associated histologically with atrophic gastritis. There are no studies on the acute effect of alcohol intake on gastric acid secretion in chronic alcoholic patients. The acid stimulatory component of beer and wine needs to be characterised and its possible role in the causation of alcohol induced gastrointestinal diseases needs to be investigated.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Lenz HJ, Ferrari-Taylor J, Isenberg JI. Wine and five percent ethanol are potent stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans. Gastroenterology. 1983 Nov;85(5):1082–1087. [PubMed]
  • Singer MV, Leffmann C, Eysselein VE, Calden H, Goebell H. Action of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin in humans. Gastroenterology. 1987 Dec;93(6):1247–1254. [PubMed]
  • Singer MV. Welche Kontrollösungen sollen bei Studien über die akute Wirkung von Alkohol auf den Gastrointestinaltrakt gegeben werden? Z Gastroenterol. 1983 Oct;21(10):567–573. [PubMed]
  • HIRSCHOWITZ BI, POLLARD HM, HARTWELL SW, Jr, LONDON J. The action of ethyl alcohol on gastric acid secretion. Gastroenterology. 1956 Feb;30(2):244–256. [PubMed]
  • Demol P, Singer MV, Hotz J, Eysselein V, Goebell H. Different actions of intravenous ethanol on basal (= interdigestive) secretion of gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes and bile acids and gastrointestinal motility in man. Alcohol Alcohol. 1985;20(1):19–26. [PubMed]
  • Kölbel CB, Singer MV, Möhle T, Heinzel C, Eysselein V, Goebell H. Action of intravenous ethanol and atropine on the secretion of gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes, and bile acids and the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract in nonalcoholic humans. Pancreas. 1986;1(3):211–218. [PubMed]
  • Cooke AR. The stimultaneous emptying and absorption of ethanol from the human stomach. Am J Dig Dis. 1970 May;15(5):449–454. [PubMed]
  • Cooke AR. Ethanol and gastric function. Gastroenterology. 1972 Mar;62(3):501–502. [PubMed]
  • Peterson WL, Barnett C, Walsh JH. Effect of intragastric infusions of ethanol and wine on serum gastrin concentration and gastric acid secretion. Gastroenterology. 1986 Dec;91(6):1390–1395. [PubMed]
  • McArthur K, Hogan D, Isenberg JI. Relative stimulatory effects of commonly ingested beverages on gastric acid secretion in humans. Gastroenterology. 1982 Jul;83(1 Pt 2):199–203. [PubMed]
  • Kölbel CB, Singer MV, Dorsch W, Krege P, Eysselein VE, Layer P, Goebell H. Pancreatic and gastric responses to gastric versus jejunal beer in humans. Pancreas. 1988;3(1):89–94. [PubMed]
  • Singer MV, Eysselein V, Goebell H. Beer and wine but not whisky and pure ethanol do stimulate release of gastrin in humans. Digestion. 1983;26(2):73–79. [PubMed]
  • Hajnal F, Flores MC, Valenzuela JE. Effect of alcohol and alcoholic beverages on nonstimulated pancreatic secretion in humans. Pancreas. 1989;4(4):486–491. [PubMed]
  • Hajnal F, Flores MC, Radley S, Valenzuela JE. Effect of alcohol and alcoholic beverages on meal-stimulated pancreatic secretion in humans. Gastroenterology. 1990 Jan;98(1):191–196. [PubMed]
  • Korman MG, Soveny C, Hansky J. Effect of food on serum gastrin evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Gut. 1971 Aug;12(8):619–624. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Straus E, Urbach HJ, Yalow RS. Alcohol-stimulated secretion of immunoreactive secretin. N Engl J Med. 1975 Nov 13;293(20):1031–1032. [PubMed]
  • Demol P, Singer MV, Hotz J, Hoffmann U, Hanssen LE, Eysselein VE, Goebell H. Action of intragastric ethanol on pancreatic exocrine secretion in relation to the interdigestive gastrointestinal motility in humans. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 1986 Sep;94(3):251–259. [PubMed]
  • Singer MV, Teyssen S, Eysselein VE. Action of beer and its ingredients on gastric acid secretion and release of gastrin in humans. Gastroenterology. 1991 Oct;101(4):935–942. [PubMed]
  • Chacín J, Cárdenas P, Lobo P, Hernández I. Secretory and metabolic effects of ethanol in the isolated amphibian gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology. 1991 May;100(5 Pt 1):1288–1295. [PubMed]
  • Puurunen J, Karppanen H, Kairaluoma M, Larmi T. Effects of ethanol on the cyclic AMP system of the dog gastric mucosa. Eur J Pharmacol. 1976 Aug;38(2):275–279. [PubMed]
  • Szücs M, Karnushina I. The in vitro effect of ethanol on the histamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. Agents Actions. 1981 Apr;11(1-2):158–160. [PubMed]
  • de Saint-Blanquat G, Derache R. Effet d'une intoxication aiguë par l'éthanol sur le taux de l'histamine dans le tractus digestif chez le rat. Therapie. 1967 Sep-Oct;22(5):1045–1053. [PubMed]
  • IRVINE WT, RITCHIE HD, ADAM HM. Histamine concentrations in the gastric venous effluent before and during acid secretion. Gastroenterology. 1961 Sep;41:258–263. [PubMed]
  • Davenport HW. Ethanol damage to canine oxyntic glandular mucosa. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1967 Dec;126(3):657–662. [PubMed]
  • Håkanson R, Sundler F. Histamine-producing cells in the stomach and their role in the regulation of acid secretion. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1991;180:88–94. [PubMed]
  • Staub JL, Sarles H, Chayvialle JA, Descos F, Lassmann V, Vague P. Relationship between intravenous ethanol, alcohol-induced inhibition of pancreatic secretion and plasma concentration of immunoreactive pancreatic polypeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and somatostatin in man. Regul Pept. 1981 Apr;2(1):61–68. [PubMed]
  • Robert A, Nezamis JE, Lancaster C, Davis JP, Field SO, Hanchar AJ. Mild irritants prevent gastric necrosis through "adaptive cytoprotection" mediated by prostaglandins. Am J Physiol. 1983 Jul;245(1):G113–G121. [PubMed]
  • Chey WY, Kusakcioglu O, Dinoso V, Lorber SH. Gastric secretion in patients with chronic pancreatitis and in chronic alcoholics. Arch Intern Med. 1968 Nov;122(5):399–403. [PubMed]
  • Piubello W, Vantini I, Scuro LA, Novelli P, Benini L, Brocco G, Cavallini G. Gastric secretion, gastroduodenal histological changes, and serum gastrin in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1982 Feb;77(2):105–110. [PubMed]
  • Dinoso VP, Jr, Chey WY, Braverman SP, Rosen AP, Ottenberg D, Lorber SH. Gastric secretion and gastric mucosal morphology in chronic alcoholics. Arch Intern Med. 1972 Nov;130(5):715–719. [PubMed]
  • Lillibridge CB, Yoshimori M, Chey WY. Observations on the ultrastructure of oxyntic cells in alcohol-fed dogs. Am J Dig Dis. 1973 Jun;18(6):443–454. [PubMed]

Articles from Gut are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group