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J Athl Train. 1999 Oct-Dec; 34(4): 362–367.
PMCID: PMC1323348

Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control of the Shoulder After Muscle Fatigue

Joseph B. Myers, MA, ATC, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, PhD, ATC, Robert A. Schneider, MS, PT, ATC, and William E. Prentice, PhD, ATC, PT



To examine the effects of fatigue on proprioception and neuromuscular control of the shoulder.

Design and Setting:

Subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or control group. Subjects were tested using either the active angle-reproduction or the single- arm dynamic stability test. The subjects were then fatigued using a dynamometer performing continuous, concentric rotation exercises of the shoulder. Once fatigued, the subjects were posttested using the same test. One week later, the subjects returned and were pretested, fatigued, and posttested using the other test.


Thirty-two college-age (18 to 25 years) subjects (16 males, 16 females) with no history of glenohumeral instability or upper extremity injury volunteered for this study.


Absolute angular error was measured using an electrogoniometer present within the isokinetic dynamometer, while sway velocity was measured using a force-plate system.


Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between the pretest and posttest values for absolute angular error in the experimental group, whereas no significant difference was revealed between pretest and posttest sway velocity for either the control or experimental group.


Fatigue of the internal and external rotators of the shoulder decreased proprioception of the shoulder, while having no significant effect on neuromuscular control.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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