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J Athl Train. 1999 Apr-Jun; 34(2): 137–143.
PMCID: PMC1322902

Crossover Cutting During Hamstring Fatigue Produces Transverse Plane Knee Control Deficits

John A. Nyland, EdD, PT, SCS, ATC, CSCS,* David N.M. Caborn, MD,* Robert Shapiro, PhD, FACSM, and Darren L. Johnson, MD*



To assess the effects of eccentric work-induced hamstring fatigue on sagittal and transverse plane (axial) knee and ankle biodynamics and kinetics during a running crossover cut directional change (functional pivot shift).

Design and Setting:

A pretest-posttest, single-group intervention experimental design was employed. All data were collected in a biodynamics laboratory.


Twenty healthy athletic females were trained for 3 weeks in crossover cutting before testing.


Data were sampled during 3 unfatigued and 3 fatigued (20% eccentric isokinetic knee-flexor torque reduction) crossover cut trials. Three-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction-force data were sampled at 200 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively, and joint moment estimates were calculated. Data were standardized to initial force-plate heelstrike for comparisons of mean differences between conditions using paired t tests with Bonferroni adjustments. Pearson product-moment correlations compared kinematic and eccentric hamstring-torque relationships.


During internal rotation phase 1, between heelstrike and impact absorption, mean internal rotation velocity increased by 21.2°/s ± 114°/s. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak transverse plane knee rotation during propulsion decreased by 3.1° ± 9°. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak ankle plantar flexor moment onsets occurred 12.7 ± 53 milliseconds earlier, and this activation demonstrated a moderately positive relationship with the onset of mean peak knee internal rotation during propulsion and a weak negative relationship with mean peak hamstring torque/lean body weight.


The increased knee internal rotation velocity during phase I indicates transverse plane dynamic knee-control deficits during hamstring fatigue. Earlier peak ankle plantar-flexor moments and decreased internal rotation during phase II in the presence of hamstring fatigue may represent compensatory attempts at dynamic knee stabilization from the posterior lower leg musculature during the pivot shift portion of the crossover cut. The weak relationship between decreased hamstring torque/lean body weight and delayed knee internal rotation during propulsion further supports greater dependence on ankle plantar flexors for dynamic knee stabilization compensation

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Selected References

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