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J Athl Train. 1999 Apr-Jun; 34(2): 93–98.
PMCID: PMC1322896

Anterior Tibial Translation in Collegiate Athletes with Normal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Integrity

John M. Rosene, DPE, ATC* and Tracey D. Fogarty, DPE



To examine differences in anterior tibial translation (ATT) among sports, sex, and leg dominance in collegiate athletes with normal anterior cruciate ligament integrity.

Design and Setting:

Subjects from various athletic teams were measured for ATT in right and left knees.


Sixty subjects were measured for ATT with a KT-1000 knee arthrometer.


Statistical analyses were computed for each sex and included a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) for anterior cruciate ligament displacement, right and left sides, and force and sport. A 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare means for sex and force. A 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare sex differences across 3 forces.


For males and females, no significant interactions were found among leg, force, and sport for mean ATT, for leg and sport or leg and force, or for translation values between dominant and nondominant legs. Males had a significant interaction for force and sport, and a significant difference was found for side of body, since the right side had less translation than the left side. Females had greater ATT than males at all forces.


Sex differences exist for ATT, and differences in ATT exist among sports for both sexes. Differences between the right and left sides of the body should be expected when making comparisons of ligamentous laxity.

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Selected References

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