PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jathtrainLink to Publisher's site
 
J Athl Train. 1998 Oct-Dec; 33(4): 310–314.
PMCID: PMC1320579

Effects of Strength Training on Strength Development and Joint Position Sense in Functionally Unstable Ankles

Carrie L. Docherty, MEd, ATC,* Josef H. Moore, PhD, PT, and Brent L. Arnold, PhD, ATC

Abstract

Objective:

To examine the effects of ankle-strengthening exercises on joint position sense and strength development in subjects with functionally unstable ankles.

Design and Setting:

Subjects were randomly assigned to a training or control group. The training group participated in a 6-week strength-training protocol using rubber tubing 3 times a week throughout the training period. The control group did not participate in the strength-training protocol.

Subjects:

Twenty healthy college students (10 females, 10 males, age = 20.6 ± 2.23 years; ht = 176.40 ± 7.14 cm; wt = 74.18 ± 10.17 kg) with a history of functional ankle instability volunteered to participate in this study.

Measurements:

We pretested and posttested dorsiflexor and evertor isometric strength with a handheld dynamometer and collected joint position sense (JPS) data at 20° for inversion and plantar flexion and at 10° for eversion and dorsiflexion.

Results:

Statistical tests for strength and JPS revealed significant group-by-time interactions for dorsiflexion strength, eversion strength, inversion JPS, and plantar flexion JPS. Simple main-effects testing revealed improvements in training group strength and JPS at posttesting. There were no significant effects for eversion JPS, but the group main effect for dorsiflexion JPS was significant, with the experimental group having better scores than the control group.

Conclusions:

Ankle-strengthening exercises improved strength, inversion JPS, dorsiflexion JPS, and plantar flexion JPS in subjects with functionally unstable ankles.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Diamond JE. Rehabilitation of ankle sprains. Clin Sports Med. 1989 Oct;8(4):877–891. [PubMed]
  • BOSIEN WR, STAPLES OS, RUSSELL SW. Residual disability following acute ankle sprains. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1955 Dec;37-A(6):1237–1243. [PubMed]
  • Freeman MA. Treatment of ruptures of the lateral ligament of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1965 Nov;47(4):661–668. [PubMed]
  • Freeman MA, Dean MR, Hanham IW. The etiology and prevention of functional instability of the foot. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1965 Nov;47(4):678–685. [PubMed]
  • Goodwin GM, McCloskey DI, Matthews PB. The contribution of muscle afferents to kinaesthesia shown by vibration induced illusions of movement and by the effects of paralysing joint afferents. Brain. 1972;95(4):705–748. [PubMed]
  • Hutton RS, Smith JL, Eldred E. Postcontraction sensory discharge from muscle and its source. J Neurophysiol. 1973 Nov;36(6):1090–1103. [PubMed]
  • Moritani T, deVries HA. Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain. Am J Phys Med. 1979 Jun;58(3):115–130. [PubMed]
  • Tropp H. Pronator muscle weakness in functional instability of the ankle joint. Int J Sports Med. 1986 Oct;7(5):291–294. [PubMed]
  • Lentell G, Baas B, Lopez D, McGuire L, Sarrels M, Snyder P. The contributions of proprioceptive deficits, muscle function, and anatomic laxity to functional instability of the ankle. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1995 Apr;21(4):206–215. [PubMed]
  • Myburgh KH, Vaughan CL, Isaacs SK. The effects of ankle guards and taping on joint motion before, during, and after a squash match. Am J Sports Med. 1984 Nov-Dec;12(6):441–446. [PubMed]
  • Enoka RM. Muscle strength and its development. New perspectives. Sports Med. 1988 Sep;6(3):146–168. [PubMed]
  • Tropp H, Ekstrand J, Gillquist J. Stabilometry in functional instability of the ankle and its value in predicting injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1984;16(1):64–66. [PubMed]
  • COOPER S. The responses of the primary and secondary endings of muscle spindles with intact motor innervation during applied stretch. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci. 1961 Oct;46:389–398. [PubMed]
  • MATTHEWS PB. The effect of the local application of procaine on the stretch reflex of the soleus muscle of the cat decerebrated by anaemia. J Physiol. 1958 Mar 11;140(3):408–420. [PubMed]
  • CROWE A, MATTHEWS PB. THE EFFECTS OF STIMULATION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC FUSIMOTOR FIBRES ON THE RESPONSE TO STRETCHING OF THE PRIMARY ENDINGS OF MUSCLE SPINDLES. J Physiol. 1964 Oct;174:109–131. [PubMed]
  • HUNT CC. The reflex activity of mammalian small-nerve fibres. J Physiol. 1951 Dec 28;115(4):456–469. [PubMed]
  • KOBAYASHI Y, OSHIMA K, TASAKI I. Analysis of afferent and efferent systems in the muscle nerve of the toad and cat. J Physiol. 1952 Jun;117(2):152–171. [PubMed]
  • Vallbo AB. Slowly adapting muscle receptors in man. Acta Physiol Scand. 1970 Mar;78(3):315–333. [PubMed]
  • CROWE A, MATTHEWS PB. FURTHER STUDIES OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC FUSIMOTOR FIBRES. J Physiol. 1964 Oct;174:132–151. [PubMed]
  • Hoffman M, Payne VG. The effects of proprioceptive ankle disk training on healthy subjects. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1995 Feb;21(2):90–93. [PubMed]
  • Gauffin H, Tropp H, Odenrick P. Effect of ankle disk training on postural control in patients with functional instability of the ankle joint. Int J Sports Med. 1988 Apr;9(2):141–144. [PubMed]
  • Mattacola CG, Lloyd JW. Effects of a 6-week strength and proprioception training program on measures of dynamic balance: a single-case design. J Athl Train. 1997 Apr;32(2):127–135. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Athletic Training are provided here courtesy of National Athletic Trainers Association