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To alert athletic trainers to the signs and symptoms of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and its clinical presentation in order to facilitate immediate intervention.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, is a hemorrhagic disorder that is primarily immunologic in origin but is sometimes triggered by viral infection in children. It has also been associated with heroin and quinine drug use. A reduced platelet count can result in mucosal or deep tissue bleeding, or both, and most importantly, intracranial bleeding. Because football is a collision sport, it is imperative that any player presenting with ITP-type symptoms be removed immediately from all contact and referred to a physician.
Leukemia, aplastic anemia, drug side effects, vitamin deficiency, kidney failure, infection, multiple contusions.
The traditional first-line treatment consists of corticosteroid medication and time and removal from all physical activities until the blood platelet count is normal and controlled. In quinine-induced ITP, discontinuation of the drug and bedrest are recommended to reduce the risk of major hemorrhage for a 12-to 14-hour period in order to allow the quinine to clear the system and the platelet count to return to normal.
ITP's presentation needs to be differentiated from other disorders. Incorrect diagnosis could seriously jeopardize the athlete, who could develop intracranial and internal bleeding.
Recognition of the signs and symptoms associated with ITP is essential to prevent further participation by the athlete. Immediate intervention is needed to determine the severity and to institute appropriate treatment.