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J Athl Train. 1998 Apr-Jun; 33(2): 118–121.
PMCID: PMC1320397

Differences in Selected Predictors of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Between Male and Female NCAA Division I Collegiate Basketball Players

Jamie L. Moul, EdD, ATC



To examine sex differences in strength, Q-angle, and pronation as predictors of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries.

Design and Setting:

Height, weight, sum-of-seven skin-folds, quadriceps and hamstrings strength, Q-angle, and pronation were measured in each subject.


Male (n = 23) and female (n = 25) NCAA Division in identical conditioning programs.


Strength was measured at 180°·s-1 using an isokinetic dynamometer. Q-angle was assessed with the leg fully extended and flexed to 30°. Pronation was determined with the navicular drop test.


A 2 × 2 factorial analysis of variance indicated significant differences in the eccentric hamstrings-to-eccentric quadriceps strength ratio (female right = 46.11% ± 2.83%, left = 52.73% ± 3.74%; male right = 89.08% ± 6.34%, left = 93.16% ± 9.14% (P < .001)) and Q-angle measured in 30° of flexion (female right = 13.37° ± 0.99°, left 15.56° ± 1.34°; male right = 5.62° ± 0.75°, left = 6.00° ± 0.86° (P = .05)).


The results of this investigation indicate that, of the variables thought to contribute to ACL injuries, eccentric hamstrings strength relative to concentric quadriceps strength and Q-angle measured in 30° of flexion appear to be significantly different in males and females.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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