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To examine sex differences in strength, Q-angle, and pronation as predictors of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries.
Height, weight, sum-of-seven skin-folds, quadriceps and hamstrings strength, Q-angle, and pronation were measured in each subject.
Male (n = 23) and female (n = 25) NCAA Division in identical conditioning programs.
Strength was measured at 180°·s-1 using an isokinetic dynamometer. Q-angle was assessed with the leg fully extended and flexed to 30°. Pronation was determined with the navicular drop test.
A 2 × 2 factorial analysis of variance indicated significant differences in the eccentric hamstrings-to-eccentric quadriceps strength ratio (female right = 46.11% ± 2.83%, left = 52.73% ± 3.74%; male right = 89.08% ± 6.34%, left = 93.16% ± 9.14% (P < .001)) and Q-angle measured in 30° of flexion (female right = 13.37° ± 0.99°, left 15.56° ± 1.34°; male right = 5.62° ± 0.75°, left = 6.00° ± 0.86° (P = .05)).
The results of this investigation indicate that, of the variables thought to contribute to ACL injuries, eccentric hamstrings strength relative to concentric quadriceps strength and Q-angle measured in 30° of flexion appear to be significantly different in males and females.