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J Athl Train. 1997 Jul-Sep; 32(3): 206–210.
PMCID: PMC1320238

A Survey of Lightning Policy in Selected Division I Colleges

Katie M. Walsh, EdD, ATC, Michael J. Hanley, MS, ATC, Susanne J. Graner, MA, ATC, Dwayne Beam, MAEd, ATC, and Jim Bazluki, MAEd, ATC



The purpose of this research was to investigate the hazards of lightning for participants in outdoor athletics and to determine the existence of, and assess the nature of, lightning safety policy at the collegiate level.

Design and Setting:

We used data from the National Severe Storms Laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma, and from a survey of Division I institutions.


The 48 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (football) universities in Florida, Michigan, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and New York.


Athletic trainers at all of the selected 48 Division I institutions responded to the telephone survey.


Florida, Michigan, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and New York led the country in lightning deaths and injuries from 1959-1994. Only 8% (n = 4) of the institutions surveyed in these states have a written policy regarding lightning safety.


This study demonstrated the lack of lightning safety policy in the surveyed universities and the need for a systematic plan of action to make fields safer for all who are involved in outdoor sport activities.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (915K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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Articles from Journal of Athletic Training are provided here courtesy of National Athletic Trainers Association