PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jathtrainLink to Publisher's site
 
J Athl Train. 1997 Apr-Jun; 32(2): 124–126.
PMCID: PMC1319814

The Effect of Cryotherapy on Eccentric Plantar Flexion Peak Torque and Endurance

Iris F. Kimura, PhD, LPT, ATC
Iris F. Kimura is Professor and Director of the Graduate Program of Athletic Training at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140.
Glenn T. Thompson, MEd, ATC
Glenn T. Thompson is Master's Degree Student in Athletic Training at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140.
Dawn T. Gulick, PhD, LPT, ATC

Abstract

Objective:

The effects of cryotherapy on eccentric torque production and muscle endurance have been controversial. Our intent was to examine the effect of cryotherapy on isokinetic eccentric plantar flexion peak torque at 30°/sec and 120°/sec and on endurance at 120°/sec.

Design and Setting:

Subjects were tested on an isokinetic dynamometer for peak torque and endurance and were then randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) peak torque measurements at 30°/sec and 120°/sec after a 30-minute 10°C ice bath immersion, (b) peak torque measurements at 30°/sec and 120°/sec without ice bath immersion (control), (c) endurance measurement at 120°/sec after a 30-minute 10°C ice bath immersion, and (d) endurance measurement at 120°/sec without ice bath immersion (control). Subjects completed each of the four experimental conditions with 7 to 14 days between conditions.

Subjects:

Eleven male and 11 female volunteers (mean age, 23.8 ± 3.5 years) were screened for normal ankle range of motion, past history of lower extremity injury, and contraindications to cryotherapy.

Measurements:

Dependent t tests were used to analyze practice session data in order to establish reliable baseline measurements. A 2 × 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures (p < .05) was used to analyze peak torque data. A one-way ANOVA (p < .05) was used to analyze endurance data in the form of total work.

Results:

Velocity significantly affected peak torque production, with eccentric peak torque values significantly higher at 120°/sec than at 30°/sec for both the control and the immersion conditions. Cryotherapy had no effect on eccentric peak torque at either 30°/sec or 120°/sec, but it increased eccentric total work (endurance) at 120°/sec.

Conclusions:

Cryotherapy has long been known to have beneficial therapeutic effects. In our study, cryotherapy did not significantly affect eccentric peak torque, but it did increase muscle endurance. An athlete can reap the beneficial effects of cryotherapy, such as pain reduction, vasoconstriction, and edema control, without compromising eccentric force production or endurance.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (606K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Barnes WS. Effects of heat and cold application on isometric muscular strength. Percept Mot Skills. 1983 Jun;56(3):886–886. [PubMed]
  • Pettersson G, Ahlman H, Dahlström A, Kewenter J, Larsson I, Larsson PA. The effect of transmural field stimulation on the serotonin content in rat duodenal enterochromaffin cells--in vitro. Acta Physiol Scand. 1979 Sep;107(1):83–87. [PubMed]
  • Bundschuh EL, Clarke DH. Muscle response to maximal fatiguing exercise in cold water. Am Correct Ther J. 1982 May-Jun;36(3):82–87. [PubMed]
  • CLARKE RS, HELLON RF, LIND AR. The duration of sustained contractions of the human forearm at different muscle temperatures. J Physiol. 1958 Oct 31;143(3):454–473. [PubMed]
  • Clarke DH, Stelmach GE. Muscular fatigue and recovery curve parameters at various temperatures. Res Q. 1966 Dec;37(4):468–479. [PubMed]
  • Clarke DH, Wojciechowicz RA. The effect of low environmental temperatures on local muscular fatigue parameters. Am Correct Ther J. 1978 Mar-Apr;32(2):35–40. [PubMed]
  • Coppin EG, Livingstone SD, Kuehn LA. Effects on handgrip strength due to arm immersion in a 10 degree C water bath. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1978 Nov;49(11):1322–1326. [PubMed]
  • Edwards RH, Harris RC, Hultman E, Kaijser L, Koh D, Nordesjö LO. Effect of temperature on muscle energy metabolism and endurance during successive isometric contractions, sustained to fatigue, of the quadriceps muscle in man. J Physiol. 1972 Jan;220(2):335–352. [PubMed]
  • Haymes EM, Rider RA. Effects of leg cooling on peak isokinetic torque and endurance. Am Correct Ther J. 1983 Jul-Aug;37(4):109–115. [PubMed]
  • Johnson DJ, Leider FE. Influence of cold bath on maximum handgrip strength. Percept Mot Skills. 1977 Feb;44(1):323–326. [PubMed]
  • Petrofsky JS. The influence of recruitment order and temperature on muscle contraction with special reference to motor unit fatigue. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1981;47(1):17–25. [PubMed]
  • Ruiz DH, Myrer JW, Durrant E, Fellingham GW. Cryotherapy and sequential exercise bouts following cryotherapy on concentric and eccentric strength in the quadriceps. J Athl Train. 1993 Winter;28(4):320–323. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davies CT, Mecrow IK, White MJ. Contractile properties of the human triceps surae with some observations on the effects of temperature and exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1982;49(2):255–269. [PubMed]
  • Ranatunga KW, Wylie SR. Temperature effects on mammalian muscle contraction. Biomed Biochim Acta. 1989;48(5-6):S530–S535. [PubMed]
  • Christensen LV, Mohamed SE. Effects of topical cooling on isometric contractions of the human masseter muscle. Arch Oral Biol. 1984;29(8):635–639. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Athletic Training are provided here courtesy of National Athletic Trainers Association