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J Athl Train. 1995 September; 30(3): 254–258.
PMCID: PMC1317871

Kinematic and Electromyographic Analysis of Elbow Flexion During Inertial Exercise

James E. Tracy, MS, PT, ATC, CSCS
James E. Tracy is Clinical Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858-4353.
Shuchi Obuchi, MS, PT
Shuchi Obuchi is Graduate Student at Department of Physical Therapy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.


Inertial exercise protocols are currently used clinically to improve and restore normal muscle function even though research to substantiate their effectiveness cannot be cited in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare simultaneous kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data obtained from 12 subjects during elbow flexion on the Impulse Inertial Exercise System. Testing sessions consisted of inertial exercise performed using phasic and tonic techniques with loads of: a) 0 kg, b) 2.27 kg, c) 4.54 kg, d) 6.80 kg, e) 9.07 kg. Greater peak angular velocities, peak platform accelerations (change in velocity of platform during elbow flexion), mean and peak triceps brachii muscle EMG activity, and less range of motion were observed during phasic exercise. There was also a general trend for peak angular velocities and peak platform acceleration to increase as the load decreased. No significant difference in mean or peak EMG activity of the biceps brachii muscle was seen between techniques. Clinicians and athletic trainers using inertial exercise should consider both the exercise technique and load characteristics when designing protocols to meet the specific needs of patients.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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Articles from Journal of Athletic Training are provided here courtesy of National Athletic Trainers Association