Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jathtrainLink to Publisher's site
J Athl Train. 1995 September; 30(3): 249–253.
PMCID: PMC1317870

Concerns on Little League Elbow

Michael J. Wells, MS and Gerald W. Bell, EdD, PT, ATC, R


Little League elbow is a common overuse injury that will become more prevalent as more youths participate in baseball programs and other sports that involve overhead arm activities. The condition is highly treatable if diagnosed early in its development. Symptoms such as swelling and limited range of motion usually indicate an advanced overuse condition. Prevention and treatment should emphasize education of athletes, parents, and coaches about coaches about its etiology. Factors involved are proper pitching mechanics, stretching and strengthening programs, improving early recognition, and, most importantly, limiting the number of pitches thrown daily.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1018K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adams JE. Bone injuries in very young athletes. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1968 May-Jun;58:129–140. [PubMed]
  • Albright JA, Jokl P, Shaw R, Albright JP. Clinical study of baseball pitchers: correlation of injury to the throwing arm with method of delivery. Am J Sports Med. 1978 Jan-Feb;6(1):15–21. [PubMed]
  • Brighton CT. Structure and function of the growth plate. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978 Oct;(136):22–32. [PubMed]
  • BROGDON BG, CROW NE. Little leaguer's elbow. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1960 Apr;83:671–675. [PubMed]
  • Grana WA, Rashkin A. Pitcher's elbow in adolescents. Am J Sports Med. 1980 Sep-Oct;8(5):333–336. [PubMed]
  • Gugenheim JJ, Jr, Stanley RF, Woods GW, Tullos HS. Little League survey: the Houston study. Am J Sports Med. 1976 Sep-Oct;4(5):189–200. [PubMed]
  • Lipscomb AB. Baseball pitching injuries in growing athletes. J Sports Med. 1975 Jan-Feb;3(1):25–34. [PubMed]
  • Micheli LJ. Overuse injuries in children's sports: the growth factor. Orthop Clin North Am. 1983 Apr;14(2):337–360. [PubMed]
  • Micheli LJ, Fehlandt AF., Jr Overuse injuries to tendons and apophyses in children and adolescents. Clin Sports Med. 1992 Oct;11(4):713–726. [PubMed]
  • Pappas AM. Elbow problems associated with baseball during childhood and adolescence. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982 Apr;(164):30–41. [PubMed]
  • Specht EE. Epiphyseal injuries in childhood. Am Fam Physician. 1974 Oct;10(4):101–109. [PubMed]
  • Torg JS, Moyer RA. Non-union of a stress fracture through the olecranon epiphyseal plate observed in an adolescent baseball pitcher. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977 Mar;59(2):264–265. [PubMed]
  • Wilson FD, Andrews JR, Blackburn TA, McCluskey G. Valgus extension overload in the pitching elbow. Am J Sports Med. 1983 Mar-Apr;11(2):83–88. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Athletic Training are provided here courtesy of National Athletic Trainers Association