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J Athl Train. 1994 June; 29(2): 141–143.
PMCID: PMC1317778

Glucose Emergencies: Recognition and Treatment


Millions of Americans have pathologies related to glucose regulation. Many of these individuals have diagnosed diabetes. There are, however, countless others who are unaware that they have glucose regulation disorders. Athletic trainers may find themselves called upon to work with individuals with documented and undocumented disorders. The purpose of this article is to define three primary glucose emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic hyperosmolar state, and hypoglycemia) and discuss the treatment for each. Attention is focused on signs and symptoms which allow the athletic trainer to differentiate between the conditions.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Hamblin PS, Topliss DJ, Stockigt JR. Practical management of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. Aust N Z J Med. 1990 Dec;20(6):836–841. [PubMed]
  • Hanley RM. 'Diabetic' emergencies. They happen with or without diabetes. Postgrad Med. 1990 Sep 1;88(3):90–99. [PubMed]
  • Harris GD, Fiordalisi I, Finberg L. Safe management of diabetic ketoacidemia. J Pediatr. 1988 Jul;113(1 Pt 1):65–68. [PubMed]
  • Holliman CJ, Wuerz RC, Meador SA. Medical command errors in an urban advanced life support system. Ann Emerg Med. 1992 Apr;21(4):347–350. [PubMed]
  • Slama G, Traynard PY, Desplanque N, Pudar H, Dhunputh I, Letanoux M, Bornet FR, Tchobroutsky G. The search for an optimized treatment of hypoglycemia. Carbohydrates in tablets, solutin, or gel for the correction of insulin reactions. Arch Intern Med. 1990 Mar;150(3):589–593. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Athletic Training are provided here courtesy of National Athletic Trainers Association