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J Athl Train. 1994 March; 29(1): 15–18.
PMCID: PMC1317754

Upper Extremity Proprioceptive Training

Nina B. Partin, MS, ATC
Nina B. Partin is Athletic Trainer in Nacogdoches, Tex
Jennifer A. Stone, MS, ATC
Jennifer A. Stone is Manager of Internal Programs at Sports Medicine Division, US Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO 80909.
Edward J. Ryan, III, MS, ATC
Edward J. Ryan III is Manager of External Programs at Sports Medicine Division, US Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO 80909.
Joseph S. Lueken, MS, ATC
Joseph S. Lueken is Athletic Trainer at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
Kent E. Timm, PhD, ATC, PT, FASCM


Proprioception following lower extremity injuries is commonly recommended, but there is little information on proprioception training following upper extremity injuries. No studies have evaluated whether proprioception programs for athletes in open kinetic chain activities (throwing, shot putting) should be different than programs for athletes in closed kinetic chain activities (gymnastics, swimming, kayaking, or rowing). In this paper, we provide a rationale for proprioception training for upper extremity injuries in athletes and the importance of analyzing the athlete's sport and activity for specificity of proprioception exercises. We then discuss one popular proprioception exercise, rhythmic stabilization, and propose several additional upper extremity proprioception exercises, along with instructions for the athletic trainer on how to direct the athlete through these exercises.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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Articles from Journal of Athletic Training are provided here courtesy of National Athletic Trainers Association