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The National Immunization Survey (NIS) was designed to measure vaccination coverage estimates for the US, the 50 states, and selected urban areas for children ages 19-35 months. The NIS includes a random-digit-dialed telephone survey and a provider record check study. Data are weighted to account for the sample design and to reduce nonresponse and non-coverage biases in order to improve vaccination coverage estimates. Adjustments are made for biases resulting from nonresponse and nontelephone households, and estimation procedures are used to reduce measurement bias. The NIS coverage estimates represent all US children, not just children living in households with telephones. NIS estimates are highly comparable to vaccination estimates derived from the National Health Interview Survey. The NIS allows comparisons between states and urban areas over time and is used to evaluate current and new vaccination strategies.