Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of westjmedLink to Publisher's site
West J Med. 1998 July; 169(1): 46–50.
PMCID: PMC1305101

Perils and pitfalls in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Findling JW. Eutopic or ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome? A diagnostic dilemma. Mayo Clin Proc. 1990 Oct;65(10):1377–1380. [PubMed]
  • Doppman JL, Frank JA, Dwyer AJ, Oldfield EH, Miller DL, Nieman LK, Chrousos GP, Cutler GB, Jr, Loriaux DL. Gadolinium DTPA enhanced MR imaging of ACTH-secreting microadenomas of the pituitary gland. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1988 Sep-Oct;12(5):728–735. [PubMed]
  • Peck WW, Dillon WP, Norman D, Newton TH, Wilson CB. High-resolution MR imaging of pituitary microadenomas at 1.5 T: experience with Cushing disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989 Jan;152(1):145–151. [PubMed]
  • Findling JW, Aron DC, Tyrrell JB, Shinsako JH, Fitzgerald PA, Norman D, Wilson CB, Forsham PH. Selective venous sampling for ACTH in Cushing's syndrome: differentiation between Cushing disease and the ectopic ACTH syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1981 May;94(5):647–652. [PubMed]
  • Oldfield EH, Doppman JL, Nieman LK, Chrousos GP, Miller DL, Katz DA, Cutler GB, Jr, Loriaux DL. Petrosal sinus sampling with and without corticotropin-releasing hormone for the differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1991 Sep 26;325(13):897–905. [PubMed]
  • Wajchenberg BL, Mendonça B, Liberman B, Adelaide M, Pereira A, Kirschner MA. Ectopic ACTH syndrome. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1995 Jun;53(1-6):139–151. [PubMed]
  • Leinung MC, Young WF, Jr, Whitaker MD, Scheithauer BW, Trastek VF, Kvols LK. Diagnosis of corticotropin-producing bronchial carcinoid tumors causing Cushing's syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 1990 Oct;65(10):1314–1321. [PubMed]
  • Howlett TA, Drury PL, Perry L, Doniach I, Rees LH, Besser GM. Diagnosis and management of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome: comparison of the features in ectopic and pituitary ACTH production. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1986 Jun;24(6):699–713. [PubMed]
  • Molitch ME, Russell EJ. The pituitary "incidentaloma". Ann Intern Med. 1990 Jun 15;112(12):925–931. [PubMed]
  • Hall WA, Luciano MG, Doppman JL, Patronas NJ, Oldfield EH. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in normal human volunteers: occult adenomas in the general population. Ann Intern Med. 1994 May 15;120(10):817–820. [PubMed]
  • Stadnik T, Spruyt D, van Binst A, Luypaert R, d'Haens J, Osteaux M. Pituitary microadenomas: diagnosis with dynamic serial CT, conventional CT and T1-weighted MR imaging before and after injection of gadolinium. Eur J Radiol. 1994 Aug;18(3):191–198. [PubMed]
  • Teramoto A, Nemoto S, Takakura K, Sasaki Y, Machida T. Selective venous sampling directly from cavernous sinus in Cushing's syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Mar;76(3):637–641. [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto Y, Davis DH, Nippoldt TB, Young WF, Jr, Huston J, 3rd, Parisi JE. False-positive inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 1995 Dec;83(6):1087–1091. [PubMed]
  • Doppman JL, Nieman LK, Chang R, Yanovski J, Cutler GB, Jr, Chrousos GP, Oldfield EH. Selective venous sampling from the cavernous sinuses is not a more reliable technique than sampling from the inferior petrosal sinuses in Cushing's syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Aug;80(8):2485–2489. [PubMed]
  • Findling JW, Kehoe ME, Shaker JL, Raff H. Routine inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the differential diagnosis of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome: early recognition of the occult ectopic ACTH syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Aug;73(2):408–413. [PubMed]
  • Tabarin A, Greselle JF, San-Galli F, Leprat F, Caille JM, Latapie JL, Guerin J, Roger P. Usefulness of the corticotropin-releasing hormone test during bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991 Jul;73(1):53–59. [PubMed]
  • Graham BS, Tucker WS., Jr Opportunistic infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Sep;101(3):334–338. [PubMed]
  • de Herder WW, Krenning EP, Malchoff CD, Hofland LJ, Reubi JC, Kwekkeboom DJ, Oei HY, Pols HA, Bruining HA, Nobels FR, et al. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy: its value in tumor localization in patients with Cushing's syndrome caused by ectopic corticotropin or corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion. Am J Med. 1994 Apr;96(4):305–312. [PubMed]
  • Ferrer FA, MacGillivray DC, Malchoff CD, Albala DM, Shichman SJ. Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocorticotropic dependent Cushing's syndrome. J Urol. 1997 Jan;157(1):16–18. [PubMed]
  • Tabarin A, Navarranne A, Guérin J, Corcuff JB, Parneix M, Roger P. Use of ketoconazole in the treatment of Cushing's disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1991 Jan;34(1):63–69. [PubMed]
  • Engelhardt D, Weber MM. Therapy of Cushing's syndrome with steroid biosynthesis inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1994 Jun;49(4-6):261–267. [PubMed]

Articles from The Western Journal of Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group