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PURPOSE: Laboratory studies in experimental animals suggest that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decreases the incidence of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) following cataract surgery. Recently the incidence of PCO following cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation was reported to be no different following postoperative treatment with diclofenac sodium 0.1% (Voltaren, Ciba Vision) or with dexamethasone 0.1% (Maxidex, Alcon). We studied the incidence of PCO in patients following treatment with diclofenac 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% (Acular, Allergan) ophthalmic solutions 3 years after cataract surgery and implantation of a foldable silicone intraocular lens. METHODS: A total of 120 patients underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a foldable silicone intracular lens. Patients were treated with either diclofenac 0.1% ophthalmic solution or 0.5% ketorolac ophthalmic solution 4 times daily for 30 days in a double-masked, randomized fashion during the postoperative period. Patients were examined 3 years following surgery by a masked observer who determined which patients received YAG capsulotomies and graded any existing PCO. RESULTS: Each treatment group had 12% YAG capsulotomies 3 years following surgery. Although PCO was present more often with diclofenac treatment (25/62) than with ketorolac treatment (16/58), this difference is not statistically significant (P = .142). Patients tolerated both treatments well without a difference in toxic effects or tolerability. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not demonstrate a difference in the ability of diclofenac or ketorolac ophthalmic solutions to prevent PCO following cataract extraction and implantation of an intraocular lens. Both treatment regimens were equally well tolerated.