PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
 
J R Soc Med. 1999 November; 92(11): 556–561.
PMCID: PMC1297429

Shaken baby (shaken impact) syndrome: non-accidental head injury in infancy.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Guthkelch AN. Infantile subdural haematoma and its relationship to whiplash injuries. Br Med J. 1971 May 22;2(5759):430–431. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Caffey J. On the theory and practice of shaking infants. Its potential residual effects of permanent brain damage and mental retardation. Am J Dis Child. 1972 Aug;124(2):161–169. [PubMed]
  • Caffey J. The whiplash shaken infant syndrome: manual shaking by the extremities with whiplash-induced intracranial and intraocular bleedings, linked with residual permanent brain damage and mental retardation. Pediatrics. 1974 Oct;54(4):396–403. [PubMed]
  • Maxwell WL, Watt C, Graham DI, Gennarelli TA. Ultrastructural evidence of axonal shearing as a result of lateral acceleration of the head in non-human primates. Acta Neuropathol. 1993;86(2):136–144. [PubMed]
  • Gentleman SM, Roberts GW, Gennarelli TA, Maxwell WL, Adams JH, Kerr S, Graham DI. Axonal injury: a universal consequence of fatal closed head injury? Acta Neuropathol. 1995;89(6):537–543. [PubMed]
  • Shannon P, Smith CR, Deck J, Ang LC, Ho M, Becker L. Axonal injury and the neuropathology of shaken baby syndrome. Acta Neuropathol. 1998 Jun;95(6):625–631. [PubMed]
  • Bonnier C, Nassogne MC, Evrard P. Outcome and prognosis of whiplash shaken infant syndrome; late consequences after a symptom-free interval. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1995 Nov;37(11):943–956. [PubMed]
  • Ewing-Cobbs L, Kramer L, Prasad M, Canales DN, Louis PT, Fletcher JM, Vollero H, Landry SH, Cheung K. Neuroimaging, physical, and developmental findings after inflicted and noninflicted traumatic brain injury in young children. Pediatrics. 1998 Aug;102(2 Pt 1):300–307. [PubMed]
  • Sinal SH, Ball MR. Head trauma due to child abuse: serial computerized tomography in diagnosis and management. South Med J. 1987 Dec;80(12):1505–1512. [PubMed]
  • Hanigan WC, Peterson RA, Njus G. Tin ear syndrome: rotational acceleration in pediatric head injuries. Pediatrics. 1987 Nov;80(5):618–622. [PubMed]
  • Duhaime AC, Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE, Bruce DA, Margulies SS, Wiser R. The shaken baby syndrome. A clinical, pathological, and biomechanical study. J Neurosurg. 1987 Mar;66(3):409–415. [PubMed]
  • Duhaime AC, Christian CW, Rorke LB, Zimmerman RA. Nonaccidental head injury in infants--the "shaken-baby syndrome". N Engl J Med. 1998 Jun 18;338(25):1822–1829. [PubMed]
  • Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE. Biomechanics of acute subdural hematoma. J Trauma. 1982 Aug;22(8):680–686. [PubMed]
  • Leadbeatter S, James R, Claydon S, Knight B. The shaken infant syndrome. Shaking alone may not be responsible for damage. BMJ. 1995 Jun 17;310(6994):1600–1601. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Plunkett J. Shaken baby syndrome and the death of Matthew Eappen: a forensic pathologist's response. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1999 Mar;20(1):17–21. [PubMed]
  • Norton LE. Child abuse. Clin Lab Med. 1983 Jun;3(2):321–342. [PubMed]
  • Christian CW, Taylor AA, Hertle RW, Duhaime AC. Retinal hemorrhages caused by accidental household trauma. J Pediatr. 1999 Jul;135(1):125–127. [PubMed]
  • Chiaviello CT, Christoph RA, Bond GR. Stairway-related injuries in children. Pediatrics. 1994 Nov;94(5):679–681. [PubMed]
  • Green MA, Lieberman G, Milroy CM, Parsons MA. Ocular and cerebral trauma in non-accidental injury in infancy: underlying mechanisms and implications for paediatric practice. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996 Apr;80(4):282–287. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wilkinson WS, Han DP, Rappley MD, Owings CL. Retinal hemorrhage predicts neurologic injury in the shaken baby syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989 Oct;107(10):1472–1474. [PubMed]
  • Kaur B, Taylor D. Retinal haemorrhages. Arch Dis Child. 1990 Dec;65(12):1369–1372. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weinstein GW, Parker RD, Rothenberg J, Framm DH. Planning for computer processing of records in an ophthalmology outpatient clinic. Ophthalmologica. 1971;162(1):21–32. [PubMed]
  • Baum JD, Bulpitt CJ. Retinal and conjunctival haemorrhage in the newborn. Arch Dis Child. 1970 Jun;45(241):344–349. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Child abuse and the eye. The Ophthalmology Child Abuse Working Party. Eye (Lond) 1999;13(Pt 1):3–10. [PubMed]
  • Buys YM, Levin AV, Enzenauer RW, Elder JE, Letourneau MA, Humphreys RP, Mian M, Morin JD. Retinal findings after head trauma in infants and young children. Ophthalmology. 1992 Nov;99(11):1718–1723. [PubMed]
  • Duhaime AC, Alario AJ, Lewander WJ, Schut L, Sutton LN, Seidl TS, Nudelman S, Budenz D, Hertle R, Tsiaras W, et al. Head injury in very young children: mechanisms, injury types, and ophthalmologic findings in 100 hospitalized patients younger than 2 years of age. Pediatrics. 1992 Aug;90(2 Pt 1):179–185. [PubMed]
  • Bacon CJ, Sayer GC, Howe JW. Extensive retinal haemorrhages in infancy--an innocent cause. Br Med J. 1978 Feb 4;1(6108):281–281. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goetting MG, Sowa B. Retinal hemorrhage after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children: an etiologic reevaluation. Pediatrics. 1990 Apr;85(4):585–588. [PubMed]
  • Weedn VW, Mansour AM, Nichols MM. Retinal hemorrhage in an infant after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1990 Mar;11(1):79–82. [PubMed]
  • Nashelsky MB, Dix JD. The time interval between lethal infant shaking and onset of symptoms. A review of the shaken baby syndrome literature. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1995 Jun;16(2):154–157. [PubMed]
  • Willman KY, Bank DE, Senac M, Chadwick DL. Restricting the time of injury in fatal inflicted head injuries. Child Abuse Negl. 1997 Oct;21(10):929–940. [PubMed]
  • Greenes DS, Schutzman SA. Occult intracranial injury in infants. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Dec;32(6):680–686. [PubMed]
  • Morin MA, Pitts FW. Delayed apoplexy following head injury ("traumatische spät-apoplexis"). J Neurosurg. 1970 Nov;33(5):542–547. [PubMed]
  • Young HA, Gleave JR, Schmidek HH, Gregory S. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma: report of 15 cases operatively treated. Neurosurgery. 1984 Jan;14(1):22–25. [PubMed]
  • Soloniuk D, Pitts LH, Lovely M, Bartkowski H. Traumatic intracerebral hematomas: timing of appearance and indications for operative removal. J Trauma. 1986 Sep;26(9):787–794. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press