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Case reports and serological work have raised the possibility that chlamydias can infect the placenta and thus harm the fetus. We investigated the involvement of Chlamydia in a series of 195 unselected cases of spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. Formalin-fixed placental tissues from all cases were examined immunohistochemically, for the presence of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide, as well as histopathologically. A serum sample was collected from 187 of the patients for detection of anti-chlamydial antibodies by microimmunofluorescence. All placental sections were negative for chlamydial antigen. Serological findings indicated that 8 patients had been in contact with C. trachomatis, 15 patients with C. pneumoniae, and none with C. psittaci. A few cases of perivillitis or intervillitis were detected, but none exhibited the intracytoplasmic inclusions typical of C. psittaci. Although these results are negative a search for Chlamydia in abortion materials should be encouraged.