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J R Soc Med. 1998 December; 91(12): 626–630.
PMCID: PMC1296980

Problem-based learning as an alternative to lecture-based continuing medical education.

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Selected References

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  • David TJ, Patel L. Adult learning theory, problem based learning, and paediatrics. Arch Dis Child. 1995 Oct;73(4):357–363. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richards T. Continuing medical education. BMJ. 1998 Jan 24;316(7127):246–246. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Regehr G, Norman GR. Issues in cognitive psychology: implications for professional education. Acad Med. 1996 Sep;71(9):988–1001. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt HG. Foundations of problem-based learning: some explanatory notes. Med Educ. 1993 Sep;27(5):422–432. [PubMed]
  • Barrows HS. A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Med Educ. 1986 Nov;20(6):481–486. [PubMed]
  • Dolmans D, Schmidt H. The advantages of problem-based curricula. Postgrad Med J. 1996 Sep;72(851):535–538. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Patel VL, Groen GJ, Norman GR. Effects of conventional and problem-based medical curricula on problem solving. Acad Med. 1991 Jul;66(7):380–389. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt HG, Machiels-Bongaerts M, Hermans H, ten Cate TJ, Venekamp R, Boshuizen HP. The development of diagnostic competence: comparison of a problem-based, an integrated, and a conventional medical curriculum. Acad Med. 1996 Jun;71(6):658–664. [PubMed]
  • Vernon DT, Blake RL. Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Acad Med. 1993 Jul;68(7):550–563. [PubMed]
  • Albanese MA, Mitchell S. Problem-based learning: a review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues. Acad Med. 1993 Jan;68(1):52–81. [PubMed]
  • Norman GR, Schmidt HG. The psychological basis of problem-based learning: a review of the evidence. Acad Med. 1992 Sep;67(9):557–565. [PubMed]
  • Brigley S, Littlejohns P, Young Y, McEwen J. Continuing medical education: the question of evaluation. Med Educ. 1997 Jan;31(1):67–71. [PubMed]
  • Harden RM, Laidlaw JM. Effective continuing education: the CRISIS criteria. Med Educ. 1992 Sep;26(5):408–422. [PubMed]

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