PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
 
J R Soc Med. 1997 July; 90(7): 379–386.
PMCID: PMC1296382

Assembling comparison groups to assess the effects of health care.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • HILL AB. The clinical trial. N Engl J Med. 1952 Jul 24;247(4):113–119. [PubMed]
  • Mulrow CD. The medical review article: state of the science. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Mar;106(3):485–488. [PubMed]
  • Oxman AD, Guyatt GH. Guidelines for reading literature reviews. CMAJ. 1988 Apr 15;138(8):697–703. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peckham M. Research and development for the National Health Service. Lancet. 1991 Aug 10;338(8763):367–371. [PubMed]
  • Chalmers I, Dickersin K, Chalmers TC. Getting to grips with Archie Cochrane's agenda. BMJ. 1992 Oct 3;305(6857):786–788. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stewart LA, Clarke MJ. Practical methodology of meta-analyses (overviews) using updated individual patient data. Cochrane Working Group. Stat Med. 1995 Oct 15;14(19):2057–2079. [PubMed]
  • Vandenbroucke JP. A short note on the history of the randomized controlled trial. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40(10):985–987. [PubMed]
  • Chalmers TC, Celano P, Sacks HS, Smith H., Jr Bias in treatment assignment in controlled clinical trials. N Engl J Med. 1983 Dec 1;309(22):1358–1361. [PubMed]
  • Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA. 1995 Feb 1;273(5):408–412. [PubMed]
  • Black N. Why we need observational studies to evaluate the effectiveness of health care. BMJ. 1996 May 11;312(7040):1215–1218. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schulz KF. Subverting randomization in controlled trials. JAMA. 1995 Nov 8;274(18):1456–1458. [PubMed]
  • Dickersin K, Min YI. NIH clinical trials and publication bias. Online J Curr Clin Trials. 1993 Apr 28;DOC:[4967 words–paragraphs]. [PubMed]
  • Scherer RW, Dickersin K, Langenberg P. Full publication of results initially presented in abstracts. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1994 Jul 13;272(2):158–162. [PubMed]
  • Simes RJ. Publication bias: the case for an international registry of clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 1986 Oct;4(10):1529–1541. [PubMed]
  • Easterbrook PJ, Berlin JA, Gopalan R, Matthews DR. Publication bias in clinical research. Lancet. 1991 Apr 13;337(8746):867–872. [PubMed]
  • Gøtzsche PC. Reference bias in reports of drug trials. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987 Sep 12;295(6599):654–656. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chalmers I, Hetherington J, Newdick M, Mutch L, Grant A, Enkin M, Enkin E, Dickersin K. The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials: developing a register of published reports of controlled trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986 Dec;7(4):306–324. [PubMed]
  • Hetherington J, Dickersin K, Chalmers I, Meinert CL. Retrospective and prospective identification of unpublished controlled trials: lessons from a survey of obstetricians and pediatricians. Pediatrics. 1989 Aug;84(2):374–380. [PubMed]
  • Trounson A, Dawson K. Storage and disposal of embryos and gametes. BMJ. 1996 Jul 6;313(7048):1–2. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Soares K, McGrath J, Adams C. Evidence and tardive dyskinesia. Lancet. 1996 Jun 15;347(9016):1696–1697. [PubMed]
  • Altman DG. The scandal of poor medical research. BMJ. 1994 Jan 29;308(6924):283–284. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shapiro S. Is meta-analysis a valid approach to the evaluation of small effects in observational studies? J Clin Epidemiol. 1997 Mar;50(3):223–229. [PubMed]
  • Feinstein AR. Meta-analysis: statistical alchemy for the 21st century. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995 Jan;48(1):71–79. [PubMed]
  • Horwitz RI, Feinstein AR. Improved observational method for studying therapeutic efficacy. Suggestive evidence that lidocaine prophylaxis prevents death in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 1981 Nov 27;246(21):2455–2459. [PubMed]
  • Hine LK, Laird N, Hewitt P, Chalmers TC. Meta-analytic evidence against prophylactic use of lidocaine in acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 1989 Dec;149(12):2694–2698. [PubMed]
  • Susser M. Causal thinking in practice: strengths and weaknesses of the clinical vantage point. Pediatrics. 1984 Nov;74(5):842–849. [PubMed]
  • Chalmers I. What do I want from health research and researchers when I am a patient? BMJ. 1995 May 20;310(6990):1315–1318. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Doyal L. Informed consent in medical research. Journals should not publish research to which patients have not given fully informed consent--with three exceptions. BMJ. 1997 Apr 12;314(7087):1107–1111. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pappworth MH. "Human guinea pigs"--a history. BMJ. 1990 Dec 22;301(6766):1456–1460. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chalmers Iain. Human guinea pigs. BMJ. 1991 Feb 16;302(6773):b411–411. [PMC free article]
  • HILL AB. Medical ethics and controlled trials. Br Med J. 1963 Apr 20;1(5337):1043–1049. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press