Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
J R Soc Med. 1995 August; 88(8): 437–440.
PMCID: PMC1295296

Caffeine dependence: fact or fiction?

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (694K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Griffiths RR, Evans SM, Heishman SJ, Preston KL, Sannerud CA, Wolf B, Woodson PP. Low-dose caffeine discrimination in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Mar;252(3):970–978. [PubMed]
  • Silverman K, Griffiths RR. Low-dose caffeine discrimination and self-reported mood effects in normal volunteers. J Exp Anal Behav. 1992 Jan;57(1):91–107. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vitiello MV, Woods SC. Evidence for withdrawal from caffeine by rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1977 May;6(5):553–555. [PubMed]
  • Carney JM. Effects of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine on scheduled controlled responding in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1982 Mar;75(3):451–454. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holtzman SG. Complete, reversible, drug-specific tolerance to stimulation of locomotor activity by caffeine. Life Sci. 1983 Aug 22;33(8):779–787. [PubMed]
  • Finn IB, Holtzman SG. Tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 Aug;238(2):542–546. [PubMed]
  • Mumford GK, Neill DB, Holtzman SG. Caffeine elevates reinforcement threshold for electrical brain stimulation: tolerance and withdrawal changes. Brain Res. 1988 Aug 30;459(1):163–167. [PubMed]
  • Carroll ME, Hagen EW, Asencio M, Brauer LH. Behavioral dependence on caffeine and phencyclidine in rhesus monkeys: interactive effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Dec;31(4):927–932. [PubMed]
  • Sinton CM, Petitjean F. The influence of chronic caffeine administration on sleep parameters in the cat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Feb;32(2):459–462. [PubMed]
  • Griffiths RR, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA. Human coffee drinking: reinforcing and physical dependence producing effects of caffeine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 Nov;239(2):416–425. [PubMed]
  • Griffiths RR, Evans SM, Heishman SJ, Preston KL, Sannerud CA, Wolf B, Woodson PP. Low-dose caffeine physical dependence in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Dec;255(3):1123–1132. [PubMed]
  • Goldstein A, Kaizer S. Psychotropic effects of caffeine in man. 3. A questionnaire survey of coffee drinking and its effects in a group of housewives. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1969 Jul-Aug;10(4):477–488. [PubMed]
  • Galletly DC, Fennelly M, Whitwam JG. Does caffeine withdrawal contribute to postanaesthetic morbidity? Lancet. 1989 Jun 10;1(8650):1335–1335. [PubMed]
  • Silverman K, Evans SM, Strain EC, Griffiths RR. Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. N Engl J Med. 1992 Oct 15;327(16):1109–1114. [PubMed]
  • Strain EC, Mumford GK, Silverman K, Griffiths RR. Caffeine dependence syndrome. Evidence from case histories and experimental evaluations. JAMA. 1994 Oct 5;272(13):1043–1048. [PubMed]
  • Hughes JR, Amori G, Hatsukami DK. A survey of physician advice about caffeine. J Subst Abuse. 1988;1(1):67–70. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press