PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
 
J R Soc Med. 1992 April; 85(4): 227–231.
PMCID: PMC1294731

Abnormalities of cerebral structure in schizophrenia on magnetic resonance imaging: interpretation in relation to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis.

Abstract

The nature of abnormalities of cerebral structure evident in schizophrenia on magnetic resonance imaging is considered in relation to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of the disorder. While schizophrenic patients showed increased ventricular volume, the extent of increase with age was comparable with that evident in controls and was unrelated to duration of illness. Conversely, cortical atrophy was evident only in patients, and this increased markedly with age and duration of illness. Such findings could be suggestive of two distinct pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia, but a schema for their reconciliation with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis is elaborated.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, Husband J, Kreel L. Cerebral ventricular size and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet. 1976 Oct 30;2(7992):924–926. [PubMed]
  • Murray RM, Lewis SW. Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987 Sep 19;295(6600):681–682. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weinberger DR. Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987 Jul;44(7):660–669. [PubMed]
  • Lyon M, Barr CE, Cannon TD, Mednick SA, Shore D. Fetal neural development and schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1989;15(1):149–161. [PubMed]
  • Waddington JL, Torrey EF, Crow TJ, Hirsch SR. Schizophrenia, neurodevelopment, and disease. The Fifth Biannual Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia, Badgastein, Austria, January 28 to February 3, 1990. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991 Mar;48(3):271–273. [PubMed]
  • Roberts GW. Schizophrenia: a neuropathological perspective. Br J Psychiatry. 1991 Jan;158:8–17. [PubMed]
  • O'Callaghan E, Larkin C, Kinsella A, Waddington JL. Familial, obstetric, and other clinical correlates of minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1991 Apr;148(4):479–483. [PubMed]
  • Waddington JL, O'Callaghan E, Larkin C, Redmond O, Stack J, Ennis JT. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1990;(9):56–65. [PubMed]
  • Barta PE, Pearlson GD, Powers RE, Richards SS, Tune LE. Auditory hallucinations and smaller superior temporal gyral volume in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1990 Nov;147(11):1457–1462. [PubMed]
  • Suddath RL, Christison GW, Torrey EF, Casanova MF, Weinberger DR. Anatomical abnormalities in the brains of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 1990 Mar 22;322(12):789–794. [PubMed]
  • Schwarzkopf SB, Olson SC, Coffman JA, Nasrallah HA. Third and lateral ventricular volumes in schizophrenia: support for progressive enlargement of both structures. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1990;26(3):385–391. [PubMed]
  • Bogerts B, Ashtari M, Degreef G, Alvir JM, Bilder RM, Lieberman JA. Reduced temporal limbic structure volumes on magnetic resonance images in first episode schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1990 Apr;35(1):1–13. [PubMed]
  • DeLisi LE, Hoff AL, Schwartz JE, Shields GW, Halthore SN, Gupta SM, Henn FA, Anand AK. Brain morphology in first-episode schizophrenic-like psychotic patients: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 1991 Jan 15;29(2):159–175. [PubMed]
  • Waddington JL, O'Callaghan E, Buckley P, Larkin C, Redmond O, Stack J, Ennis JT. The age dependencies of MRI abnormalities in schizophrenia suggest early ventricular enlargement but later prominence of cortical atrophy. Schizophr Res. 1991 Oct;5(3):188–189. [PubMed]
  • O'Callaghan E, Larkin C, Redmond O, Stack J, Ennis JT, Waddington JL. 'Early-onset schizophrenia' after teenage head injury. A case report with magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Sep;153:394–396. [PubMed]
  • Andreasen NC, Ehrhardt JC, Swayze VW, 2nd, Alliger RJ, Yuh WT, Cohen G, Ziebell S. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in schizophrenia. The pathophysiologic significance of structural abnormalities. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Jan;47(1):35–44. [PubMed]
  • Waddington JL. The ageing brain, neuroleptic drugs and the enigma of schizophrenia. Ir J Med Sci. 1988 May;157(5):135–141. [PubMed]
  • Jernigan TL, Press GA, Hesselink JR. Methods for measuring brain morphologic features on magnetic resonance images. Validation and normal aging. Arch Neurol. 1990 Jan;47(1):27–32. [PubMed]
  • Gur RC, Mozley PD, Resnick SM, Gottlieb GL, Kohn M, Zimmerman R, Herman G, Atlas S, Grossman R, Berretta D, et al. Gender differences in age effect on brain atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 1;88(7):2845–2849. [PubMed]
  • Pfefferbaum A, Zipursky RB, Lim KO, Zatz LM, Stahl SM, Jernigan TL. Computed tomographic evidence for generalized sulcal and ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988 Jul;45(7):633–640. [PubMed]
  • Andreasen NC, Swayze VW, 2nd, Flaum M, Yates WR, Arndt S, McChesney C. Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia evaluated with computed tomographic scanning. Effects of gender, age, and stage of illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Nov;47(11):1008–1015. [PubMed]
  • Flaum M, Arndt S, Andreasen NC. The role of gender in studies of ventricle enlargement in schizophrenia: a predominantly male effect. Am J Psychiatry. 1990 Oct;147(10):1327–1332. [PubMed]
  • Nasrallah HA, Schwarzkopf SB, Olson SC, Coffman JA. Gender differences in schizophrenia on MRI brain scans. Schizophr Bull. 1990;16(2):205–210. [PubMed]
  • Gender and schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1990;16(2):179–344. [PubMed]
  • Lewis SW, Reveley MA, David AS, Ron MA. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and schizophrenia: a case report. Psychol Med. 1988 May;18(2):341–347. [PubMed]
  • Swayze VW, 2nd, Andreasen NC, Ehrhardt JC, Yuh WT, Alliger RJ, Cohen GA. Developmental abnormalities of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia. Arch Neurol. 1990 Jul;47(7):805–808. [PubMed]
  • Atlas SW, Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT, Rorke L, Hackney DB, Goldberg HI, Grossman RI. Corpus callosum and limbic system: neuroanatomic MR evaluation of developmental anomalies. Radiology. 1986 Aug;160(2):355–362. [PubMed]
  • Schaefer GB, Shuman RM, Wilson DA, Saleeb S, Domek DB, Johnson SF, Bodensteiner JB. Partial agenesis of the anterior corpus callosum: correlation between appearance, imaging, and neuropathology. Pediatr Neurol. 1991 Jan-Feb;7(1):39–44. [PubMed]
  • Bordarier C, Robain O, Ponsot G. Bilateral porencephalic defect in a newborn after injection of benzol during pregnancy. Brain Dev. 1991;13(2):126–129. [PubMed]
  • Sato Y, Kao SC, Smith WL. Radiographic manifestations of anomalies of the brain. Radiol Clin North Am. 1991 Mar;29(2):179–194. [PubMed]
  • Cannon TD, Mednick SA, Parnas J. Genetic and perinatal determinants of structural brain deficits in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989 Oct;46(10):883–889. [PubMed]
  • Waddington JL, O'Callaghan E, Larkin C. Premorbid neuropathology in schizophrenia. Lancet. 1988 Oct 22;2(8617):959–960. [PubMed]
  • Jørgensen OS, Brooksbank BW, Balázs R. Neuronal plasticity and astrocytic reaction in Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. J Neurol Sci. 1990 Aug;98(1):63–79. [PubMed]
  • Mann DM, Royston MC, Ravindra CR. Some morphometric observations on the brains of patients with Down's syndrome: their relationship to age and dementia. J Neurol Sci. 1990 Nov;99(2-3):153–164. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press