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J R Soc Med. 1993 March; 86(3): 159–161.
PMCID: PMC1293908

Beethoven's nephropathy and death: discussion paper.

Abstract

The autopsy description of Beethoven's nephropathy is so typical of renal papillary necrosis, that the diagnosis is as near to certain as is possible, in the absence of a histological examination. A review of the symptoms and clinical course of Beethoven's final illness is consistent with this diagnosis. It is proposed that the cause was an acute onset diabetes mellitus, complicating chronic pancreatitis. Beethoven's case appears to be the first report in the literature of an autopsy proven case of renal papillary necrosis.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press