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Seventeen patients with urinary diversions present for between 10 and 17 years were examined endoscopically. The region of the anastomosis was successfully biopsied in 13 cases. Biopsy specimens were examined both histologically and cytologically. Urine was aspirated from the conduits under sterile conditions and sent for qualification of bacterial flora. Histology revealed a variable degree of villous atrophy, mucosal metaplasia, crypt hyperplasia and in one case, antral type gland metaplasia. The finding of hyperplasia was corroborated by flow cytometry which demonstrated a high percentage of cells in G2 and metaphase. The majority of cases showed a colonic type of bacterial colonization and mucin histochemistry demonstrated a colonic type of mucin.