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We present our early experience with gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI) combined with intrauterine insemination (IUI), two recently described methods of assisting conception in patients with patent fallopian tubes. Sixty-nine patients (93 cycles) were entered into the study. Thirty-three patients (51 cycles) entered the DIPI/IUI programme and 36 patients (42 cycles) entered the GIFT programme. The mean age, duration and aetiology of infertility were similar in both groups. In the GIFT programme 12 pregnancies occurred, which is a 29% pregnancy rate per cycle and a 33% pregnancy rate per patient. In the DIPI/IUI programme only 3 pregnancies occurred, being a 6% pregnancy rate per cycle and a 9% pregnancy rate per patient. With the live birth rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) being 12% per embryo transfer, we conclude that GIFT is more successful than either DIPI/IUI or IVF in patients with patent fallopian tubes. Further controlled studies are required to assess the future role of DIPI/IUI in clinical practice.