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J R Soc Med. 1988 January; 81(1): 23–26.
PMCID: PMC1291423

Anaesthetic considerations in facial reconstruction for Down's syndrome.


Sixty-three patients with Down's syndrome underwent facial reconstructive surgery under general anaesthesia in order to improve their acceptability and potential for functioning effectively in society. Preoperatively, one-third of the patients had respiratory illnesses, 11 (17.5%) had cardiac anomalies, and 5 (7.9%) had endocrinological abnormalities. Anaesthesia was based on spontaneous ventilation of halothane and N2O in oxygen via an endotracheal tube with appropriate monitoring. Only one patient had an intraoperative complication, an episode of ventricular dysrhythmia, but postoperatively 9 patients required nasopharyngeal airways or endotracheal intubation in order to maintain a patent upper airway. The anaesthetic considerations for facial reconstructive surgery in Down's syndrome are discussed.

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Selected References

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