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Seventy patients who had sustained supracondylar fractures of the humerus as children were examined. Loss of carrying angle of the elbow occurred if the fracture was immobilized in a varus position during healing. Varus malalignment could have been obviated if comparative radiographs of the other elbow had been taken and the Baumann angles compared. Rotation and posterior displacement at the fracture had little bearing on the outcome. Immobilization of the fracture in a collar and cuff sling was as effective as more elaborate methods.