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The results of diagnostic and staging investigations in consecutive cases of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder are reviewed. Urine culture, urine cytology and intravenous urography had positive results in a high percentage of cases. As diagnostic investigations they are cost-effective but certainly do not remove the obligation to perform cystoscopy and examination under anaesthetic. Isotopic bone scan and liver scan showed metastases in 4 and one cases respectively and only when there were clinical signs of disseminated disease. Chest X-ray showed metastases in one case. These investigations are not cost-effective. Lymphangiography was positive in 12 of the 94 cases and, although expensive (pounds 70), is still a staging investigation of value in planning treatment.