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J R Soc Med. 1987 March; 80(3): 143–144.
PMCID: PMC1290718

Cost-effectiveness of investigations for invasive bladder cancer.


The results of diagnostic and staging investigations in consecutive cases of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder are reviewed. Urine culture, urine cytology and intravenous urography had positive results in a high percentage of cases. As diagnostic investigations they are cost-effective but certainly do not remove the obligation to perform cystoscopy and examination under anaesthetic. Isotopic bone scan and liver scan showed metastases in 4 and one cases respectively and only when there were clinical signs of disseminated disease. Chest X-ray showed metastases in one case. These investigations are not cost-effective. Lymphangiography was positive in 12 of the 94 cases and, although expensive (pounds 70), is still a staging investigation of value in planning treatment.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Esposti PL, Zajicek J. Grading of transitional cell neoplasms of the urinary bladder from smears of bladder washings. A critical review of 326 tumors. Acta Cytol. 1972 Nov-Dec;16(6):529–537. [PubMed]
  • Wallace DM, Bloom HJ. The management of deeply infiltrating (T3) bladder carcinoma: controlled trial of radical radiotherapy versus preoperative radiotherapy and radical cystectomy (first report). Br J Urol. 1976;48(7):587–594. [PubMed]
  • Babaian RJ, Johnson DE, Llamas L, Ayala AG. Metastases from transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Urology. 1980 Aug;16(2):142–144. [PubMed]
  • Lindner A, deKernion JB. Cost-effective analysis of pre-cystectomy radioisotope scans. J Urol. 1982 Dec;128(6):1181–1182. [PubMed]
  • Skinner DG. Current perspectives in the management of high-grade invasive bladder cancer. Cancer. 1980 Apr 15;45(7 Suppl):1866–1874. [PubMed]

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