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A series of 101 patients with Cushing's disease underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Diagnosis was fundamentally based on dynamic testing, mainly on the dosage-dependent suppression of cortisol after dexamethasone. The effect of surgery was monitored by intraoperative ACTH measurements. In 96 out of 101 patients a microadenoma of the pituitary was identified and removed selectively. In 74% of patients there was a clinical and endocrinological remission of Cushing's disease. Four 'operative failures' after selective adenomectomy underwent hypophysectomy in a second operation and each remitted. Thus the overall remission rate was 77%. In general, bilateral adrenalectomy was performed in patients who had failed to remit after selective adenomectomy. Although there is a considerable mortality and morbidity in patients with Cushing's syndrome, complications attributed to surgery were low. Two patients died postoperatively. In general, an improvement of disturbed pituitary function was noted after selective adenomectomy.