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Fasting serum lipoproteins were measured in 10 untreated patients with carcinoma of the prostate (Group I), 17 patients with non-malignant urological disorders (Group II), and 12 patients on cyproterone acetate (Group III) and 5 on a long-acting luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue (Group IV) for at least 2 months for carcinoma of the prostate. Total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower in patients in Group III than all the other groups. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels were significantly higher in patients in Group III than those in Groups II and IV. These results suggest a potentially adverse effect of cyproterone acetate, but not of the long-acting LHRH analogue, on serum lipids, which is likely to be of relevance only in younger patients.