PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jrsocmedLink to Publisher's site
 
J R Soc Med. 1986 February; 79(2): 76–83.
PMCID: PMC1290187

Physiological responses to psychological challenge under hypnosis in patients considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome: implications for diagnosis and therapy.

Abstract

Thirty patients who were considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome on clinical grounds (history and observation) were referred for testing: 29 patients completed a forced hyperventilation provocation test, and 28 underwent hypnosis during which time a psychological challenge was introduced which was meaningful to each individual patient. In 19/27 of these patients the PetCO2 fell by an average of 18.2 mmHg and persisted spontaneously for more than three minutes. In 10 normal controls studied in a similar fashion there was an average fall of 5 mmHg. The difference in response between responders and controls/non-responders was highly significant (P less than 0.001). A review of the literature is presented for comparison. It is considered that a psychological challenge under hypnosis may have important implications for diagnosis and therapy in some patients considered to have the hyperventilation syndrome.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Motta PE, Fagiani MB, Dolcetti A, Bellone E, Borello G. Modificazioni dei gas nel sangue nello stato ansioso di media gravità. Arch Sci Med (Torino) 1971 Jul-Sep;128(3):111–119. [PubMed]
  • Suess WM, Alexander AB, Smith DD, Sweeney HW, Marion RJ. The effects of psychological stress on respiration: a preliminary study of anxiety and hyperventilation. Psychophysiology. 1980 Nov;17(6):535–540. [PubMed]
  • DUDLEY DL, HOLMES TH, MARTIN CJ, RIPLEY HS. CHANGES IN RESPIRATION ASSOCIATED WITH HYPNOTICALLY INDUCED EMOTION, PAIN, AND EXERCISE. Psychosom Med. 1964 Jan-Feb;26:46–57. [PubMed]
  • Redd WH, Andresen GV, Minagawa RY. Hypnotic control of anticipatory emesis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1982 Feb;50(1):14–19. [PubMed]
  • Schafer DW. Hypnosis use on a burn unit. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1975 Jan;23(1):1–14. [PubMed]
  • BALKE B, WELLS JG, CLARK RT., Jr In-flight hyperventilation during jet pilot training. J Aviat Med. 1957 Jun;28(3):241–248. [PubMed]
  • Third International Workshop on Respiratory Psychophysiology. Bordeaux, September 1-2, 1983. Abstracts. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir. 1984 Jan-Feb;20(1):83–95. [PubMed]
  • STEVENSON I, RIPLEY HS. Variations in respiration and in respiratory symptoms during changes in emotion. Psychosom Med. 1952 Nov-Dec;14(6):476–490. [PubMed]
  • DUDLEY DL, MARTIN CJ, HOLMES TH. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIC STUDIES OF PULMONARY VENTILATION. Psychosom Med. 1964 Nov-Dec;26:645–660. [PubMed]
  • Rigg JR, Inman EM, Saunders NA, Leeder SR, Jones NL. Interaction of mental factors with hypercapnic ventilatory drive in man. Clin Sci Mol Med. 1977 Mar;52(3):269–275. [PubMed]
  • Garssen B. Role of stress in the development of the hyperventilation syndrome. Psychother Psychosom. 1980;33(4):214–225. [PubMed]
  • Lazarus HR, Kostan JJ., Jr Psychogenic hyperventilation and death anxiety. Psychosomatics. 1969 Jan-Feb;10(1):14–22. [PubMed]
  • Brashear RE. Hyperventilation syndrome. Lung. 1983;161(5):257–273. [PubMed]
  • YU PN, YIM JB, STANFIELD CA. Hyperventilation syndrome; changes in the electrocardiogram, blood gases, and electrolytes during voluntary hyperventilation; possible mechanisms and clinical implications. AMA Arch Intern Med. 1959 Jun;103(6):902–913. [PubMed]
  • Freeman LJ, Nixon PG. Chest pain and the hyperventilation syndrome--some aetiological considerations. Postgrad Med J. 1985 Nov;61(721):957–961. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bass C, Cawley R, Wade C, Ryan KC, Gardner WN, Hutchison DC, Jackson G. Unexplained breathlessness and psychiatric morbidity in patients with normal and abnormal coronary arteries. Lancet. 1983 Mar 19;1(8325):605–609. [PubMed]
  • Magarian GJ. Hyperventilation syndromes: infrequently recognized common expressions of anxiety and stress. Medicine (Baltimore) 1982 Jul;61(4):219–236. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine are provided here courtesy of Royal Society of Medicine Press