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The use of captopril in 19 patients with renal parenchymal disease and refractory hypertension was studied for a mean period of 12 months. There was a significant reduction in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, with a reduction in the mean arterial pressure of 29 mmHg. The mean maintenance dose of captopril was 142 mg daily in three divided doses. All but one of the patients required a diuretic for satisfactory blood pressure control and 3 patients were also given a beta-blocker. In all patients a simplification of the previous therapeutic regimen was achieved. A significant rise in serum creatinine was noted in 2 patients, one of whom had to be withdrawn from the study. Despite the presence of renal functional impairment, proteinuria did not occur de novo nor did established proteinuria increase. Leukopenia was noted in any of the patients in this group.