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The efficacy of three different schedules of reinforcement for promoting and sustaining drug abstinence was compared in this study. Cigarette smoking was studied as an exemplar of stimulant drug self-administration. Sixty cigarette smokers were assigned to one of three groups (progressive rate of reinforcement, fixed rate of reinforcement, and yoked control). Participants in all three groups were asked to refrain from smoking for 1 week. Participants in the progressive and fixed groups achieved greater mean levels of abstinence than those in the control group. Participants in the progressive group were significantly less likely to resume smoking when they became abstinent than participants in the other groups.