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J Appl Behav Anal. 1995 Winter; 28(4): 401–416.
PMCID: PMC1279847

The effects of a sportsmanship curriculum intervention on generalized positive social behavior of urban elementary school students

Tom Sharpe
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Marty Brown
Arnold Elementary School


This study evaluated the effects of an elementary physical education curriculum in which development of positive social skills, including leadership and conflict-resolution behaviors, was the primary focus. A second goal was to determine possible generalization effects beyond the primary intervention setting. Students in two urban elementary physical education classes served as subjects, with a third class used as a comparison. The effects of the curriculum intervention were evaluated in the training setting and in the students' regular education classrooms using a multiple baseline across classrooms design. Results showed (a) an immediate increase in student leadership and independent conflict-resolution behaviors, (b) an increase in percentage of class time devoted to activity participation, and (c) decreases in the frequency of student off-task behavior and percentage of class time that students devoted to organizational tasks. Similar changes in student behavior were also observed in the regular classroom settings.

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Selected References

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