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Biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (BOP) shelf arthroplasty was performed on ten nondysplastic dogs, divided into five groups. Each group was evaluated at 6, 13, 17, 26 or 39 weeks postsurgery. Evaluation consisted of clinical, radiological and histological studies. The dogs were injected with three fluorochrome markers, 28 days, 14 days and 6 hours before euthanasia. Transverse sections of undecalcified arthroplasty site were examined by microradiography and fluorescence microscopy; surface-stained sections were evaluated by light microscopy. The BOP shelf arthroplasty was not technically difficult. Minimal mineralization of the shelf was noted by radiography, 26 and 39 weeks postop. A moderate to large amount of fibrous mature connective tissue was observed around the BOP fibers throughout the study. Bone ingrowth occurred around the BOP fibers, but was minimal within them. This osseous proliferation of the arthroplasty was very slow to take place; it was first noted microscopically 17 weeks postsurgery and was still minimal 39 weeks after surgery. These findings suggest that there may be interference to the osteoconductive properties of BOP by fibrous tissue. Ossification of the shelf arthroplasty was too unsatisfactory to recommend its use for the treatment of canine hip dysplasia.