Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of envhperEnvironmental Health PerspectivesBrowse ArticlesAbout EHPGeneral InformationAuthorsMediaProgramsPartnerships
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 December; 108(12): 1179–1187.
PMCID: PMC1240200
Research Article

Inhaled concentrated ambient particles are associated with hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage changes in canines.


Pulmonary inflammatory and hematologic responses of canines were studied after exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) using the Harvard ambient particle concentrator (HAPC). For pulmonary inflammatory studies, normal dogs were exposed in pairs to either CAPs or filtered air (paired studies) for 6 hr/day on 3 consecutive days. For hematologic studies, dogs were exposed for 6 hr/day for 3 consecutive days with one receiving CAPs while the other was simultaneously exposed to filtered air; crossover of exposure took place the following week (crossover studies). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs exposure samples included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. No statistical differences in biologic responses were found when all CAPs and all sham exposures were compared. However, the variability in biologic response was considerably higher with CAPs exposure. Subsequent exploratory graphical analyses and mixed linear regression analyses suggested associations between CAPs constituents and biologic responses. Factor analysis was applied to the compositional data from paired and crossover experiments to determine elements consistently associated with each other in CAPs samples. In paired experiments, four factors were identified; in crossover studies, a total of six factors were observed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and hematologic data were regressed on the factor scores. Increased BAL neutrophil percentage, total peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts, circulating neutrophils, and circulating lymphocytes were associated with increases in the aluminum/silicon factor. Increased circulating neutrophils and increased BAL macrophages were associated with the vanadium/nickel factor. Increased BAL neutrophils were associated with the bromine/lead factor when only the compositional data from the third day of CAPs exposure were used. Significant decreases in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels were correlated with the sulfur factor. BAL or hematologic parameters were not associated with increases in total CAPs mass concentration. These data suggest that CAPs inhalation is associated with subtle alterations in pulmonary and systemic cell profiles, and specific components of CAPs may be responsible for these biologic responses.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (124K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Dockery DW, Pope CA, 3rd, Xu X, Spengler JD, Ware JH, Fay ME, Ferris BG, Jr, Speizer FE. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N Engl J Med. 1993 Dec 9;329(24):1753–1759. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz J. What are people dying of on high air pollution days? Environ Res. 1994 Jan;64(1):26–35. [PubMed]
  • Pope CA3rd, Dockery DW, Kanner RE, Villegas GM, Schwartz J. Oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and particulate air pollution: A daily time-series panel study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Feb;159(2):365–372. [PubMed]
  • Alarie Y, Busey WM, Krumm AA, Ulrich CE. Long-term continuous exposure to sulfuric acid mist in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. Arch Environ Health. 1973 Jul;27(1):16–24. [PubMed]
  • Gearhart JM, Schlesinger RB. Sulfuric acid-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1986 Nov;7(4):681–689. [PubMed]
  • Chen LC, Peoples SM, Amdur MO. Pulmonary effects of sulfur oxides on the surface of copper oxide aerosol. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1991 May;52(5):187–191. [PubMed]
  • Gavett SH, Madison SL, Dreher KL, Winsett DW, McGee JK, Costa DL. Metal and sulfate composition of residual oil fly ash determines airway hyperreactivity and lung injury in rats. Environ Res. 1997 Feb;72(2):162–172. [PubMed]
  • Conner MW, Rogers AE, Amdur MO. Response of guinea pig respiratory tract to inhalation of submicron zinc oxide particles generated in the presence of sulfur dioxide and water vapor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1982 Dec;66(3):434–442. [PubMed]
  • Conner MW, Lam HF, Rogers AE, Fitzgerald S, Amdur MO. Lung injury in guinea pigs caused by multiple exposures to submicron zinc oxide mixed with sulfur dioxide in a humidified furnace. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1985;16(1):101–114. [PubMed]
  • Conner MW, Flood WH, Rogers AE, Amdur MO. Lung injury in guinea pigs caused by multiple exposures to ultrafine zinc oxide: changes in pulmonary lavage fluid. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;25(1):57–69. [PubMed]
  • Conner MW, Flood WH, Rogers AE, Amdur MO. Changes in pulmonary lavage fluid of guinea pigs exposed to ultrafine zinc oxide with adsorbed sulfuric acid. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1989;26(2):223–234. [PubMed]
  • Carter JD, Ghio AJ, Samet JM, Devlin RB. Cytokine production by human airway epithelial cells after exposure to an air pollution particle is metal-dependent. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 Oct;146(2):180–188. [PubMed]
  • Dreher KL, Jaskot RH, Lehmann JR, Richards JH, McGee JK, Ghio AJ, Costa DL. Soluble transition metals mediate residual oil fly ash induced acute lung injury. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997 Feb 21;50(3):285–305. [PubMed]
  • Lambert AL, Dong W, Winsett DW, Selgrade MK, Gilmour MI. Residual oil fly ash exposure enhances allergic sensitization to house dust mite. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999 Aug 1;158(3):269–277. [PubMed]
  • Sioutas C, Koutrakis P, Burton RM. A technique to expose animals to concentrated fine ambient aerosols. Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Feb;103(2):172–177. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gordon T, Gerber H, Fang CP, Chen LC. A centrifugal particle concentrator for use in inhalation toxicology. Inhal Toxicol. 1999 Jan;11(1):71–87. [PubMed]
  • Dalgard DW, Marshall PM, Fitzgerald GH, Rendon F. Surgical technique for a permanent tracheostomy in Beagle dogs. Lab Anim Sci. 1979 Jun;29(3):367–370. [PubMed]
  • Drazen JM, O'Cain CF, Ingram RH., Jr Experimental induction of chronic bronchitis in dogs: effects on airway obstruction and responsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982 Jul;126(1):75–79. [PubMed]
  • Rebar AH, DeNicola DB, Muggenburg BA. Bronchopulmonary lavage cytology in the dog: normal findings. Vet Pathol. 1980 May;17(3):294–304. [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Gordon T, Nadziejko C, Schlesinger R, Chen LC. Pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of acute exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter in rats. Toxicol Lett. 1998 Aug;96-97:285–288. [PubMed]
  • Miguel AG, Cass GR, Weiss J, Glovsky MM. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Nov;104(11):1180–1186. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McLaughlin JK, Chow WH, Levy LS. Amorphous silica: a review of health effects from inhalation exposure with particular reference to cancer. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997 Apr 25;50(6):553–566. [PubMed]
  • Warheit DB, Yuen IS, Kelly DP, Snajdr S, Hartsky MA. Subchronic inhalation of high concentrations of low toxicity, low solubility particulates produces sustained pulmonary inflammation and cellular proliferation. Toxicol Lett. 1996 Nov;88(1-3):249–253. [PubMed]
  • Osier M, Baggs RB, Oberdörster G. Intratracheal instillation versus intratracheal inhalation: influence of cytokines on inflammatory response. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Sep;105 (Suppl 5):1265–1271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pierce LM, Alessandrini F, Godleski JJ, Paulauskis JD. Vanadium-induced chemokine mRNA expression and pulmonary inflammation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 May;138(1):1–11. [PubMed]
  • Peters A, Döring A, Wichmann HE, Koenig W. Increased plasma viscosity during an air pollution episode: a link to mortality? Lancet. 1997 May 31;349(9065):1582–1587. [PubMed]

Articles from Environmental Health Perspectives are provided here courtesy of National Institute of Environmental Health Science